Abstract

This paper treats the recently emerging self-coherent multisymbol decision-feedback-aided detection techniques for optical differential phase-shift keyed (DPSK) transmission based on both an optical preprocessing approach and an electronic postprocessing approach. We present in detail i) the generation of a synthetic low phase-noise effective local oscillator out of the modulated optical data itself, and its estimation theory interpretation; ii) the role of polyphase (interleaved) DPSK in the optical preprocessing approach in easing the decision feedback realization requirements; iii) detection of <i>M</i>-ary DPSK modulation formats for general <i>M</i>, and differential quadrature phase-shift keying in particular; iv) three alternative integrated-optoelectronic receiver implementations for the optical preprocessing approach detailing the structures of the interferometric front-end and the high-speed electronic analog and digital building blocks; and v) the principle, and alternative implementations, of the digital postprocessing approach to self-coherent detection. We finally compare the capabilities of the emerging self-coherent detection and digital coherent detection techniques.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
  2. M. Nazarathy, Y. Yadin, "Simplified decision feedback-aided multi-chip binary DPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1771-1773 (2006).
  3. M. Nazarathy, Y. Yadin, "Approaching coherent homodyne performance with direct detection low-complexity advanced modulation formats," Proc. Coherent Opt. Technol. Applicat. (COTA) (2006).
  4. M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, Y. Yadin, M. Orenstein, "Multi-chip detection of optical differential phase-shift keying and complexity reduction by interferometric decision feedback," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC2006) (2006).
  5. L. Christen, Y. K. Lize, S. Nuccio, X. Liu, M. Nazarathy, A. E. Willner, "DPSK error correction using multi-bit detection for enhanced sensitivity and compensation of impairments," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).
  6. M. Nazarathy, Y. Yadin, Y. Lize, L. Christen, A. Willner, M. Orenstein, "Enhanced self-coherent optical decision-feedback-aided detection of multi-symbol M-DPSK/PolSK in particular 8-DPSK/BPolSK at 40 Gbps," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).
  7. S. Calabro, D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Improved detection of homodyne phase shift keying through multi-symbol phase estimation," Proc. ECOC2005 (2005).
  8. D. van den Borne, "Differential quadrature phase shift keying with close to homodyne performance based on multi-symbol phase estimation," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Seminar Opt. Fibre Commun. Electron. Signal Process. (2005) pp. 12/1-12/7.
  9. X. Liu, "Data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation for receiver sensitivity enhancement in optical DQPSK," Proc. COTA'06 (2006).
  10. X. Liu, "Receiver sensitivity improvement in optical DQPSK and DQPSK/ASK through data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation," Proc. ECOC'06 (2006).
  11. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, D. Kilper, L. L. Buhl, J. Centanni, "DSP-enabled compensation of demodulator phase error and sensitivity improvement in direct-detection 40-Gb/s DQPSK," Proc. ECOC'06 (2006).
  12. D. Divsalar, M. K. Simon, "Multiple-symbol differential detection of MPSK," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 300-308 (1990).
  13. F. Edbauer, "Bit error rate of binary and quaternary DPSK signals with multiple differential feedback detection," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 457-460 (1992).
  14. F. Adachi, "Decision feedback multiple-symbol differential detection for ${M}$-ary DPSK," Electron. Lett. 29, 1385-1387 (1993).
  15. H. Leib, "Data-aided noncoherent demodulation of DPSK," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 722-725 (1995).
  16. M. Nazarathy, E. Simony, "Multi-chip differential phase encoded optical transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1133-1135 (2005).
  17. X. Liu, "Digital implementation of soft detection for 3-chip-DBPSK with improved receiver sensitivity and dispersion tolerance," Proc. OFC (2006).
  18. Y. Yadin, A. Bilenca, M. Nazarathy, M. Orenstein, "Multi-chip differential phase shift keyed transmission over (non-)nonlinear optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1431-1440 (2007).
  19. M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).
  20. I. Kang, C. Xie, C. Dorrer, A. Gnauck, "Implementations of alternate-polarisation differential-phase-shift-keying transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 333-335 (2004) .
  21. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, "1-Tb/s (6 x 170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1618-1620 (2003).
  22. X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, "Performance analysis of time/polarization multiplexed 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK DWDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 302-304 (2004).
  23. C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
  24. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, "12.3-Tb/s C-band DQPSK transmission at 3.2 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," Proc. ECOC'06 (2006).
  25. F. Seguin, F. Gonthier, "Tuneable all-fiber, delay-lineinterferometer for DPSK demodulation," Proc. OFC2005 (2005).
  26. X. Liu, "Generalized data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation for improving receiver sensitivity in direct-detection optical ${M}$-ary DPSK," Opt. Expr. 15, 2927-2939 (2007).
  27. N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, S. Sasaki, K. Sekine, "Proposal and first experimental demonstration of digital incoherent optical field detector for chromatic dispersion compensation," Proc. ECOC'06 .
  28. X. Liu, X. Wei, "Electronic dispersion compensation based on optical field reconstruction with orthogonal differential direct-detection and digital signal processing," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).
  29. N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "First experimental demonstration of single-polarization 50-Gbit/s 32-level (QASK and 8-DPSK) incoherent optical multilevel transmission," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).
  30. X. Liu, "DSP-enhanced differential direct-detection for DQPSK and ${ M}$-ary DPSK," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007).
  31. F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).
  32. M. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).
  33. R. Noe, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).
  34. K. Kikuchi, "Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 563-570 (2006).
  35. A. Leven, N. Kaneda 1, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).
  36. G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Efficient mitigation of fiber impairments in an ultra-long haul transmission of 40 Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed data, by digital processing in a coherent receiver," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).
  37. C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) performance of a coherent 40 Gbit/s dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) transceiver," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).
  38. C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "10 x 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).
  39. Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, S. Nuccio, J.-Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, "Combination of optical and electronic logic gates for error correction in multipath differential demodulation," Opt. Expr. 15, 6831-6839 (2007).

2007 (4)

Y. Yadin, A. Bilenca, M. Nazarathy, M. Orenstein, "Multi-chip differential phase shift keyed transmission over (non-)nonlinear optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1431-1440 (2007).

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).

X. Liu, "Generalized data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation for improving receiver sensitivity in direct-detection optical ${M}$-ary DPSK," Opt. Expr. 15, 2927-2939 (2007).

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, S. Nuccio, J.-Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, "Combination of optical and electronic logic gates for error correction in multipath differential demodulation," Opt. Expr. 15, 6831-6839 (2007).

2006 (2)

K. Kikuchi, "Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 563-570 (2006).

M. Nazarathy, Y. Yadin, "Simplified decision feedback-aided multi-chip binary DPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1771-1773 (2006).

2005 (3)

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

M. Nazarathy, E. Simony, "Multi-chip differential phase encoded optical transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1133-1135 (2005).

R. Noe, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).

2004 (3)

M. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, "Performance analysis of time/polarization multiplexed 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK DWDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 302-304 (2004).

I. Kang, C. Xie, C. Dorrer, A. Gnauck, "Implementations of alternate-polarisation differential-phase-shift-keying transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 333-335 (2004) .

2003 (2)

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, "1-Tb/s (6 x 170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1618-1620 (2003).

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).

1995 (1)

H. Leib, "Data-aided noncoherent demodulation of DPSK," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 722-725 (1995).

1993 (1)

F. Adachi, "Decision feedback multiple-symbol differential detection for ${M}$-ary DPSK," Electron. Lett. 29, 1385-1387 (1993).

1992 (2)

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).

F. Edbauer, "Bit error rate of binary and quaternary DPSK signals with multiple differential feedback detection," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 457-460 (1992).

1990 (1)

D. Divsalar, M. K. Simon, "Multiple-symbol differential detection of MPSK," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 300-308 (1990).

Electron. Lett. (2)

F. Adachi, "Decision feedback multiple-symbol differential detection for ${M}$-ary DPSK," Electron. Lett. 29, 1385-1387 (1993).

I. Kang, C. Xie, C. Dorrer, A. Gnauck, "Implementations of alternate-polarisation differential-phase-shift-keying transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 333-335 (2004) .

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Kikuchi, "Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 563-570 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (8)

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).

M. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

R. Noe, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, "1-Tb/s (6 x 170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1618-1620 (2003).

X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, "Performance analysis of time/polarization multiplexed 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK DWDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 302-304 (2004).

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).

M. Nazarathy, E. Simony, "Multi-chip differential phase encoded optical transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1133-1135 (2005).

M. Nazarathy, Y. Yadin, "Simplified decision feedback-aided multi-chip binary DPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1771-1773 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (3)

H. Leib, "Data-aided noncoherent demodulation of DPSK," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 722-725 (1995).

D. Divsalar, M. K. Simon, "Multiple-symbol differential detection of MPSK," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 300-308 (1990).

F. Edbauer, "Bit error rate of binary and quaternary DPSK signals with multiple differential feedback detection," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 457-460 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

Y. Yadin, A. Bilenca, M. Nazarathy, M. Orenstein, "Multi-chip differential phase shift keyed transmission over (non-)nonlinear optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1431-1440 (2007).

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).

Opt. Expr. (2)

X. Liu, "Generalized data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation for improving receiver sensitivity in direct-detection optical ${M}$-ary DPSK," Opt. Expr. 15, 2927-2939 (2007).

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, S. Nuccio, J.-Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, "Combination of optical and electronic logic gates for error correction in multipath differential demodulation," Opt. Expr. 15, 6831-6839 (2007).

Other (20)

N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, S. Sasaki, K. Sekine, "Proposal and first experimental demonstration of digital incoherent optical field detector for chromatic dispersion compensation," Proc. ECOC'06 .

X. Liu, X. Wei, "Electronic dispersion compensation based on optical field reconstruction with orthogonal differential direct-detection and digital signal processing," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).

N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "First experimental demonstration of single-polarization 50-Gbit/s 32-level (QASK and 8-DPSK) incoherent optical multilevel transmission," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).

X. Liu, "DSP-enhanced differential direct-detection for DQPSK and ${ M}$-ary DPSK," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, "12.3-Tb/s C-band DQPSK transmission at 3.2 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," Proc. ECOC'06 (2006).

F. Seguin, F. Gonthier, "Tuneable all-fiber, delay-lineinterferometer for DPSK demodulation," Proc. OFC2005 (2005).

A. Leven, N. Kaneda 1, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Efficient mitigation of fiber impairments in an ultra-long haul transmission of 40 Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed data, by digital processing in a coherent receiver," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).

C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) performance of a coherent 40 Gbit/s dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) transceiver," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "10 x 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).

X. Liu, "Digital implementation of soft detection for 3-chip-DBPSK with improved receiver sensitivity and dispersion tolerance," Proc. OFC (2006).

M. Nazarathy, Y. Yadin, "Approaching coherent homodyne performance with direct detection low-complexity advanced modulation formats," Proc. Coherent Opt. Technol. Applicat. (COTA) (2006).

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, Y. Yadin, M. Orenstein, "Multi-chip detection of optical differential phase-shift keying and complexity reduction by interferometric decision feedback," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC2006) (2006).

L. Christen, Y. K. Lize, S. Nuccio, X. Liu, M. Nazarathy, A. E. Willner, "DPSK error correction using multi-bit detection for enhanced sensitivity and compensation of impairments," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).

M. Nazarathy, Y. Yadin, Y. Lize, L. Christen, A. Willner, M. Orenstein, "Enhanced self-coherent optical decision-feedback-aided detection of multi-symbol M-DPSK/PolSK in particular 8-DPSK/BPolSK at 40 Gbps," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).

S. Calabro, D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Improved detection of homodyne phase shift keying through multi-symbol phase estimation," Proc. ECOC2005 (2005).

D. van den Borne, "Differential quadrature phase shift keying with close to homodyne performance based on multi-symbol phase estimation," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Seminar Opt. Fibre Commun. Electron. Signal Process. (2005) pp. 12/1-12/7.

X. Liu, "Data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation for receiver sensitivity enhancement in optical DQPSK," Proc. COTA'06 (2006).

X. Liu, "Receiver sensitivity improvement in optical DQPSK and DQPSK/ASK through data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation," Proc. ECOC'06 (2006).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, D. Kilper, L. L. Buhl, J. Centanni, "DSP-enabled compensation of demodulator phase error and sensitivity improvement in direct-detection 40-Gb/s DQPSK," Proc. ECOC'06 (2006).

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