Abstract

There is a trend towards miniaturization of silicon photonic circuits due to superior performance and small cost. Design rules that must be imposed on the geometry of optical waveguides to make them behave as polarization-independent and single-mode devices are well known for waveguides with relatively large cross sections and for some small cross-sectional rib waveguides with vertical sidewalls and an air top cladding. The influence of the top oxide cover on waveguide birefringence was analyzed recently, but only for relatively large cross-sectional waveguides. This paper reports simulations for both single-mode and polarization-independent behavior for small cross-sectional waveguides with variable rib width, etch depth, top oxide cover thickness, and sidewall angle. The results show that the stress-induced effects must be taken into account to satisfy both requirements. Design rules to maintain birefringence-free operation and to satisfy single-mode behavior for small rib silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides are presented.

© 2008 IEEE

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  5. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, P. Jaenen, "Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array," Opt. Exp. 14, 664-669 (2006).
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  28. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, "Stress analysis method for elastically anisotropic material based optical waveguides and its application to stess-induced optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 255-259 (1999).
  29. D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
  30. W. N. Ye, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delage, M.-J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, G. T. Tarr, "Stress-induced birefringence in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (2004) pp. 57-66.
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2007 (2)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaku, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).

S. Stanković, M. Milošević, B. Timotijević, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, J. Crnjanski, P. Matavulj, G. Z. Mashanovich, "Silicon photonic waveguides for near- and mid- infrared regions," Acta Phys. Polonica A 112, 1019-1024 (2007).

2006 (3)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, P. Jaenen, "Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array," Opt. Exp. 14, 664-669 (2006).

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, W. R. Buchwald, "Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 840-848 (2006).

B. D. Timotijevic, F. Y. Gardes, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, M. J. Paniccia, O. Cohen, D. Hak, G. Z. Masanovic, "Multi-stage racetrack resonator filters in silicon-on-insulator," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S473-S476 (2006).

2005 (5)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. R. A. Priem, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, H. K. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulationin silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 7298-7303 (2005).

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt. Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).

S. P. Chan, C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, V. M. N. Passaro, G. T. Reed, "Single mode and polarization independent SOI waveguides with small cross section," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1573-1582 (2005).

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M.-J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, N. G. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress engineering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).

2004 (4)

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, M. Pannicia, A. Liu, S. Howe, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides in silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phy. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).

J. Lousteau, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, T. M. Benson, A. Vuković, P. Sewell, "The single mode condition for silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguides with large cross section," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1923-1929 (2004).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. Huang, "Stress effects on the performance of optical waveguides," Int. J. Sol. Structures 40, 1615-1632 (2003).

2002 (2)

O. Powell, "Single-mode condition for silicon rib waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1851-1855 (2002).

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 210, 43-49 (2002).

2000 (1)

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, "Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).

1999 (1)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, "Stress analysis method for elastically anisotropic material based optical waveguides and its application to stess-induced optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 255-259 (1999).

1998 (1)

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, A. Vonsovici, "The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1851-1853 (1998).

1994 (1)

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/swich," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 625-633 (1994).

1991 (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in Ge-Si and Si-on-SiO2" IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).

1981 (1)

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, T. Edahiro, "Stress analysis of optical fibers by a finite element method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123-2129 (1981).

Acta Phys. Polonica A (1)

S. Stanković, M. Milošević, B. Timotijević, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, J. Crnjanski, P. Matavulj, G. Z. Mashanovich, "Silicon photonic waveguides for near- and mid- infrared regions," Acta Phys. Polonica A 112, 1019-1024 (2007).

Appl. Phy. Lett. (1)

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, M. Pannicia, A. Liu, S. Howe, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides in silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phy. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, T. Edahiro, "Stress analysis of optical fibers by a finite element method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123-2129 (1981).

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in Ge-Si and Si-on-SiO2" IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, "Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).

Int. J. Sol. Structures (1)

M. Huang, "Stress effects on the performance of optical waveguides," Int. J. Sol. Structures 40, 1615-1632 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Lousteau, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, T. M. Benson, A. Vuković, P. Sewell, "The single mode condition for silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguides with large cross section," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1923-1929 (2004).

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

B. D. Timotijevic, F. Y. Gardes, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, M. J. Paniccia, O. Cohen, D. Hak, G. Z. Masanovic, "Multi-stage racetrack resonator filters in silicon-on-insulator," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S473-S476 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/swich," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 625-633 (1994).

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, "Stress analysis method for elastically anisotropic material based optical waveguides and its application to stess-induced optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 255-259 (1999).

S. P. Chan, C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, V. M. N. Passaro, G. T. Reed, "Single mode and polarization independent SOI waveguides with small cross section," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1573-1582 (2005).

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M.-J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, N. G. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress engineering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, A. Vonsovici, "The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1851-1853 (1998).

O. Powell, "Single-mode condition for silicon rib waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1851-1855 (2002).

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, W. R. Buchwald, "Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 840-848 (2006).

Nature (1)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (2)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaku, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, P. Jaenen, "Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array," Opt. Exp. 14, 664-669 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (1)

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 210, 43-49 (2002).

Opt. Exp. (1)

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. R. A. Priem, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, H. K. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulationin silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 7298-7303 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Semicon. Scien. Technol. (1)

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, G. T. Reed, "Silicon photonic waveguides," Semicon. Scien. Technol. .

Other (9)

M. M. Milošević, P. S. Matavulj, G. Z. Mashanovich, "Stress-induced characteristics of silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Proc. 15th Telecommun. Forum TELFOR (2007) pp. 401-404.

C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics: SOI learns a new trick," Proc. IEEE Int. SOI Conf. (2005) pp. 7-13.

W. N. Ye, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delage, M.-J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, G. T. Tarr, "Stress-induced birefringence in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (2004) pp. 57-66.

S. Timoshenko, J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, 1951).

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Theory of Elasticity (Pergamon, 1970).

B. D. Timotijevic, Auto-regressive optical filters in silicon-on-insulator waveguides Ph.D. dissertation Adv. Technol. Inst. Univ. SurreyGuildfordU.K. (2007).

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis: Solving Maxwell's Equation and the Schrödinger Equation (Wiley, 2001).

FEMLAB COMSOL, Inc.BurlingtonMA www.comsol.com.

Beamprop Rsoft Design Group, Inc.OssiningNY www.rsoftdesign.com.

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