Abstract

A complete review of the data vortex optical packet switched (OPS) interconnection network architecture is presented. The distributed multistage network topology is based on a banyan structure and incorporates a deflection routing scheme ideally suited for implementation with optical components. An implemented 12-port system prototype employs broadband semiconductor optical amplifier switching nodes and is capable of successfully routing multichannel wavelength-division multiplexing packets while maintaining practically error-free signal integrity (BER < 10<sup>-12</sup>) with median latencies of 110 ns. Packet contentions are resolved without the use of optical buffers via a distributed deflection routing control scheme. The entire payload path in the optical domain exhibits a capacity of nearly 1 Tb/s. Further experimental measurements investigate the OPS interconnection network's flexibility and robustness in terms of optical power dynamic range and network timing. Subsequent experimental investigations support the physical layer scalability of the implemented architecture and serve to substantiate the merits of the data vortex OPS network architectural paradigm. Finally, modified design considerations that aim to increase the network throughput and device-level performance are presented.

© 2008 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. W. J. Dally, B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).
  2. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002).
  3. C. Reed, Multiple level minimum logic network U.S. Patent 5 996 020 (1999).
  4. N. F. Maxemchuk, "Regular and mesh topologies in local and metropolitan area networks," AT&T Tech. J. 64, 1659-1686 (1985).
  5. Q. Yang, K. Bergman, G. D. Hughes, F. G. Johnson, "WDM packet routing for high-capacity data networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1420-1426 (2001).
  6. Q. Yang, K. Bergman, "Traffic control and WDM routing in the data vortex packet switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 236-238 (2002).
  7. Q. Yang, K. Bergman, "Performance of the data vortex switch architecture under nonuniform and bursty traffic," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1242-1247 (2002).
  8. B. A. Small, A. Shacham, K. Bergman, K. Athikulwongse, C. Hawkins, D. S. Wills, "Emulation of realistic network traffic patterns on an eight-node data vortex interconnection network subsystem," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 802-809 (2004).
  9. C. Hawkins, B. A. Small, D. S. Wills, K. Bergman, "The data vortex, an all optical path multicomputer interconnection network," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 18, 409-420 (2007).
  10. C. Hawkins, D. S. Wills, "Impact of number of angles on the performance of the data vortex optical interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3288-3294 (2006).
  11. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, "On contention resolution in the data vortex optical interconnection network," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 777-788 (2007).
  12. A. Shacham, B. A. Small, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, K. Bergman, "A fully implemented 12 x 12 data vortex optical packet switching interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3066-3075 (2005).
  13. O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, "Physical layer scalability of a WDM optical packet interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 262-270 (2006).
  14. O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, K. Bergman, M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, "Polarization-dependent gain in SOA-based optical multistage interconnection networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3959-3967 (2006).
  15. B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, "Flexibility of optical packet format in a complete 12 x 12 data vortex network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1693-1695 (2006).
  16. B. A. Small, T. Kato, K. Bergman, "Dynamic power consideration in a complete 12 x 12 optical packet switching fabric," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2472-2474 (2005).
  17. B. A. Small, K. Bergman, "Slot timing consideration in optical packet switching networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2478-2480 (2005).
  18. B. G. Lee, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, "Signal degradation through a 12 x 12 optical packet switching network," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2006).
  19. O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, C. Gray, D. C. Keezer, K. Bergman, "Bit-parallel message exchange and data recovery in optical packet switched interconnection networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 770-781 (2006).
  20. A. Shacham, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, "A wideband photonic packet injection control module for optical packet switching routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2778-2780 (2005).
  21. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, "Optimizing the performance of a data vortex interconnection network," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 369-374 (2007).
  22. O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, K. Bergman, "Optimized switching node for optical multistage interconnection networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1658-1660 (2007).
  23. Q. Yang, "Improved performance using shortcut path routing within data vortex switch network," Electron. Lett. 41, 1253-1254 (2005).
  24. B. A. Small, A. Shacham, K. Bergman, "Ultra-low latency optical packet switching node," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1564-1566 (2005).
  25. Y. Pan, C. Qiao, Y. Yang, "Optical multistage interconnection networks: New challenges and approaches," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 50-56 (1999).
  26. H. Ahmadi, W. E. Denzel, "A Survey of modern high-performance switching techniques," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 7, 1091-1103 (1989).
  27. B. A. Small, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, A. Shacham, J. P. Mack, K. Bergman, "Demonstration of a complete 12-port terabit capacity optical packet switching fabric," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2005).
  28. B. A. Small, A. Shacham, K. Bergman, K. Athikulwongse, C. Hawkins, D. S. Wills, "Emulation of realistic network traffic patterns on an eight-node data vortex interconnection network subsystems," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 802-809 (2004).
  29. J. M. Arnold, "The SPLASH-2 software environment," J. Supercomput. 9, 277-290 (1995).
  30. H. A. Haus, "The noise figure of optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1602-1604 (1998).
  31. R. S. Tucker, K. Pei-Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnon, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).
  32. C. K. Yow, Y. J. Chai, R. V. Reading-Picopoulos, I. H. White, C. G. Leburn, A. McWilliam, A. A. Lagatsky, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, G. Maxwell, R. McDougall, "Experimental demonstration of femtosecond switching of a fully packaged all-optical switch," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2005).
  33. H.-D. Jung, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koone, E. Tangdiongga, "All-optical data vortex node using an MZI-SOA switch array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1777-1779 (2007).

2007 (5)

C. Hawkins, B. A. Small, D. S. Wills, K. Bergman, "The data vortex, an all optical path multicomputer interconnection network," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 18, 409-420 (2007).

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, "On contention resolution in the data vortex optical interconnection network," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 777-788 (2007).

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, "Optimizing the performance of a data vortex interconnection network," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 369-374 (2007).

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, K. Bergman, "Optimized switching node for optical multistage interconnection networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1658-1660 (2007).

H.-D. Jung, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koone, E. Tangdiongga, "All-optical data vortex node using an MZI-SOA switch array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1777-1779 (2007).

2006 (5)

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, C. Gray, D. C. Keezer, K. Bergman, "Bit-parallel message exchange and data recovery in optical packet switched interconnection networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 770-781 (2006).

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, "Physical layer scalability of a WDM optical packet interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 262-270 (2006).

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, K. Bergman, M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, "Polarization-dependent gain in SOA-based optical multistage interconnection networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3959-3967 (2006).

B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, "Flexibility of optical packet format in a complete 12 x 12 data vortex network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1693-1695 (2006).

C. Hawkins, D. S. Wills, "Impact of number of angles on the performance of the data vortex optical interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3288-3294 (2006).

2005 (7)

A. Shacham, B. A. Small, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, K. Bergman, "A fully implemented 12 x 12 data vortex optical packet switching interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3066-3075 (2005).

B. A. Small, T. Kato, K. Bergman, "Dynamic power consideration in a complete 12 x 12 optical packet switching fabric," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2472-2474 (2005).

B. A. Small, K. Bergman, "Slot timing consideration in optical packet switching networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2478-2480 (2005).

Q. Yang, "Improved performance using shortcut path routing within data vortex switch network," Electron. Lett. 41, 1253-1254 (2005).

B. A. Small, A. Shacham, K. Bergman, "Ultra-low latency optical packet switching node," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1564-1566 (2005).

A. Shacham, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, "A wideband photonic packet injection control module for optical packet switching routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2778-2780 (2005).

R. S. Tucker, K. Pei-Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnon, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).

2004 (2)

B. A. Small, A. Shacham, K. Bergman, K. Athikulwongse, C. Hawkins, D. S. Wills, "Emulation of realistic network traffic patterns on an eight-node data vortex interconnection network subsystem," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 802-809 (2004).

B. A. Small, A. Shacham, K. Bergman, K. Athikulwongse, C. Hawkins, D. S. Wills, "Emulation of realistic network traffic patterns on an eight-node data vortex interconnection network subsystems," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 802-809 (2004).

2002 (2)

Q. Yang, K. Bergman, "Traffic control and WDM routing in the data vortex packet switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 236-238 (2002).

Q. Yang, K. Bergman, "Performance of the data vortex switch architecture under nonuniform and bursty traffic," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1242-1247 (2002).

2001 (1)

Q. Yang, K. Bergman, G. D. Hughes, F. G. Johnson, "WDM packet routing for high-capacity data networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1420-1426 (2001).

1999 (1)

Y. Pan, C. Qiao, Y. Yang, "Optical multistage interconnection networks: New challenges and approaches," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 50-56 (1999).

1998 (1)

H. A. Haus, "The noise figure of optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1602-1604 (1998).

1995 (1)

J. M. Arnold, "The SPLASH-2 software environment," J. Supercomput. 9, 277-290 (1995).

1989 (1)

H. Ahmadi, W. E. Denzel, "A Survey of modern high-performance switching techniques," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 7, 1091-1103 (1989).

1985 (1)

N. F. Maxemchuk, "Regular and mesh topologies in local and metropolitan area networks," AT&T Tech. J. 64, 1659-1686 (1985).

AT&T Tech. J. (1)

N. F. Maxemchuk, "Regular and mesh topologies in local and metropolitan area networks," AT&T Tech. J. 64, 1659-1686 (1985).

Electron. Lett. (1)

Q. Yang, "Improved performance using shortcut path routing within data vortex switch network," Electron. Lett. 41, 1253-1254 (2005).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Y. Pan, C. Qiao, Y. Yang, "Optical multistage interconnection networks: New challenges and approaches," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 50-56 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. A. Small, T. Kato, K. Bergman, "Dynamic power consideration in a complete 12 x 12 optical packet switching fabric," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2472-2474 (2005).

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, C. Gray, D. C. Keezer, K. Bergman, "Bit-parallel message exchange and data recovery in optical packet switched interconnection networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 770-781 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

H. Ahmadi, W. E. Denzel, "A Survey of modern high-performance switching techniques," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 7, 1091-1103 (1989).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Shacham, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, "A wideband photonic packet injection control module for optical packet switching routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2778-2780 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, K. Bergman, "Optimized switching node for optical multistage interconnection networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1658-1660 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, "Flexibility of optical packet format in a complete 12 x 12 data vortex network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1693-1695 (2006).

B. A. Small, A. Shacham, K. Bergman, "Ultra-low latency optical packet switching node," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1564-1566 (2005).

H. A. Haus, "The noise figure of optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1602-1604 (1998).

H.-D. Jung, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koone, E. Tangdiongga, "All-optical data vortex node using an MZI-SOA switch array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1777-1779 (2007).

B. A. Small, K. Bergman, "Slot timing consideration in optical packet switching networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2478-2480 (2005).

Q. Yang, K. Bergman, "Traffic control and WDM routing in the data vortex packet switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 236-238 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. (1)

C. Hawkins, B. A. Small, D. S. Wills, K. Bergman, "The data vortex, an all optical path multicomputer interconnection network," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 18, 409-420 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

C. Hawkins, D. S. Wills, "Impact of number of angles on the performance of the data vortex optical interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3288-3294 (2006).

Q. Yang, K. Bergman, G. D. Hughes, F. G. Johnson, "WDM packet routing for high-capacity data networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1420-1426 (2001).

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, K. Bergman, M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, "Polarization-dependent gain in SOA-based optical multistage interconnection networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3959-3967 (2006).

J. Opt. Netw. (2)

B. A. Small, A. Shacham, K. Bergman, K. Athikulwongse, C. Hawkins, D. S. Wills, "Emulation of realistic network traffic patterns on an eight-node data vortex interconnection network subsystem," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 802-809 (2004).

B. A. Small, A. Shacham, K. Bergman, K. Athikulwongse, C. Hawkins, D. S. Wills, "Emulation of realistic network traffic patterns on an eight-node data vortex interconnection network subsystems," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 802-809 (2004).

J. Supercomput. (1)

J. M. Arnold, "The SPLASH-2 software environment," J. Supercomput. 9, 277-290 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, "Physical layer scalability of a WDM optical packet interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 262-270 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

A. Shacham, B. A. Small, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, K. Bergman, "A fully implemented 12 x 12 data vortex optical packet switching interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3066-3075 (2005).

Q. Yang, K. Bergman, "Performance of the data vortex switch architecture under nonuniform and bursty traffic," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1242-1247 (2002).

R. S. Tucker, K. Pei-Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnon, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).

J. Opt. Netw. (2)

Other (6)

B. G. Lee, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, "Signal degradation through a 12 x 12 optical packet switching network," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2006).

W. J. Dally, B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002).

C. Reed, Multiple level minimum logic network U.S. Patent 5 996 020 (1999).

C. K. Yow, Y. J. Chai, R. V. Reading-Picopoulos, I. H. White, C. G. Leburn, A. McWilliam, A. A. Lagatsky, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, G. Maxwell, R. McDougall, "Experimental demonstration of femtosecond switching of a fully packaged all-optical switch," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2005).

B. A. Small, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, A. Shacham, J. P. Mack, K. Bergman, "Demonstration of a complete 12-port terabit capacity optical packet switching fabric," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.