Abstract

In this paper, a theoretical and numerical analysis of novel in-fiber photonic devices based on a structured chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs) for sensing and communication applications is presented. The investigated structure consists in a CFBG with single or multiple defects obtained by a deep and localized stripping of the cladding layer along the grating structure. The thinning of the cladding layer, partial or total, changes the core propagation features and thus leads to a significant modification of the grating spectral features. The effect of the local thinning, properly exploited, basically consists in the formation of one or more passbands within the original grating bandwidth and in one or more stopbands out of the original grating bandwidth. In addition, due to spatial encoding of the Bragg wavelength in CFBGs, the spectral position of each channel exclusively depends on the features of its own defect in a well defined location along the grating. Thus, the spectral properties of each channel are not affected by additional defects located elsewhere along the grating structure, enabling the possibility to develop independent multichannel devices by exploiting a single grating element. The spectral behavior exhibited by the microstructured device has been here numerically analyzed in dependence on the thinned region parameters. In addition a simple theoretical model has been extracted in order to easily design the device according to the desired spectral features for specific applications.

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A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber bragg gratings part I: Spectral characteristics," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 281-290 (2007).

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber bragg gratings part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).

S. S. Saini, C. Stanford, S. M. Lee, J. Park, P. DeShong, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Monolayer detection of biochemical agents using etched-core fiber bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1341-1343 (2007).

2006 (4)

A. Cusano, M. Consales, M. Pisco, A. Buosciolo, P. Pilla, R. Viter, V. Smyntyna, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Opto-chemical sensor for water monitoring based on SnO$_{2}$ particle layer deposited onto optical fibers by the electrospray pyrolysis method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111103 (2006).

A. J. deMello, "Control and detection of chemical reactions in microfluidic systems," Nature 442, 394-402 (2006).

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).

Cusano, M. Pisco, M. Consales, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, M. Penza, P. Aversa, L. Capodieci, S. Campopiano, "Novel opto-chemical sensors based on hollow fibers and single walled carbon nanotubes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2431-2433 (2006).

2005 (8)

J. Atencia, D. J. Beebe, "Controlled microfluidic interfaces," Nature 437, 648-655 (2005).

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, "Thinned and micro-structured fiber bragg gratings: Towards new all fiber high sensitivity chemical sensors," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 734-741 (2005).

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, "Chirped fiber bragg gratings for electrically tunable time delay lines," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 408-416 (2005) 4.

M. Delgado-Pinar, J. Mora, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, B. Ortega, J. Capmany, "Tunable and reconfigurable microwave filter by use of a Bragg-grating-based acousto-optic superlattice modulator," Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Micro-structured fiber bragg gratings: Analysis and fabrication," Electron. Lett. 466-468 (2005).

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, "Refractive index sensor based on micro-structured fiber bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 30, 720-722 (2005).

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, G. Guerra, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long period gratings coated with $\delta$ form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715 (2005).

2004 (6)

M. Penza, G. Cassano, P. Aversa, F. Antolini, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, L. Nicolais, "Alcohol detection using carbon nanotubes acoustic and optical sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2378-2381 (2004).

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).

I. DelVillar, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic nanorefractometer based on one-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures with two defects," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 3, 293-299 (2004).

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4080-4087 (2004).

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, M. Gu, "Microfluidic tunable photonic bandgap device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 698-713 (2004).

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, A. Ankiewicz, "Wavelength splitting in photonic bandgap structures with multiple defects," Opt. Commun. 237, 351-355 (2004).

2003 (7)

I. DelVillar, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, R. O. Claus, "Analysis of one-dimensional photonic bandgap structures with a liquid crystal defect towards development of fiber-optic tunable wavelength filters," Opt. Exp. 11, 430-436 (2003).

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmach, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, F. Capasso, "Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," Science 302, 1374-1377 (2003).

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300, 1537-1542 (2003).

T. Asano, M. Mochizuki, S. Noda, M. Okano, M. Imada, "A channel drop filter using a single defect in a 2-D photonic crystal slab-defect engineering with respect to polarization mode and ratio of emissions from upper and lower sides," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1370-1376 (2003).

T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 2589-2596 (2003).

M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Maníková, J. Ctyroký, "Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a single-mode polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 90, 236-242 (2003).

2002 (2)

P. M. Valanju, R. M. Walser, A. P. Valanju, "Wave refraction in negative-index media: Always positive and very inhomogeneous," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 187401 (2002).

C. Jin, S. Han, X. Meng, B. Cheng, D. Zhang, "Demultiplexer using directly resonant tunnelling between point defects and waveguides in a photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4771-4773 (2002).

2001 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Exp. 9, (2001).

2000 (2)

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure," Nature 407, 608-608 (2000).

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, A. Alleman, "Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Nature 407, 983-983 (2000).

1999 (3)

A. Mekis, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Lasing mechanism in two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," App. Phys. A 69, 111-114 (1999).

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, G. Sasaki, "Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316-318 (1999).

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, P. J. Bennett, "Developing holey fibres for evanescent field devices," Electron. Lett. 35, 1188-1189 (1999).

1998 (4)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Haus, "Channel drop filters in photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 3, 4-11 (1998).

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal," Science 282, 274-276 (1998).

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. St, J. Russell, "Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

1997 (3)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

C. R. Giles, "Lightwave applications of fiber bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1391-1404 (1997).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlac, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

1982 (1)

M. Monerie, "Propagation in doubly clad single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantun Electron. QE-18, 535-542 (1982).

App. Phys. A (1)

A. Mekis, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Lasing mechanism in two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," App. Phys. A 69, 111-114 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, G. Sasaki, "Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316-318 (1999).

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, M. Gu, "Microfluidic tunable photonic bandgap device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 698-713 (2004).

M. Penza, G. Cassano, P. Aversa, F. Antolini, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, L. Nicolais, "Alcohol detection using carbon nanotubes acoustic and optical sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2378-2381 (2004).

A. Cusano, M. Consales, M. Pisco, A. Buosciolo, P. Pilla, R. Viter, V. Smyntyna, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Opto-chemical sensor for water monitoring based on SnO$_{2}$ particle layer deposited onto optical fibers by the electrospray pyrolysis method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111103 (2006).

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, P. J. Bennett, "Developing holey fibres for evanescent field devices," Electron. Lett. 35, 1188-1189 (1999).

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Micro-structured fiber bragg gratings: Analysis and fabrication," Electron. Lett. 466-468 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Cusano, M. Pisco, M. Consales, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, M. Penza, P. Aversa, L. Capodieci, S. Campopiano, "Novel opto-chemical sensors based on hollow fibers and single walled carbon nanotubes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2431-2433 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantun Electron. (1)

M. Monerie, "Propagation in doubly clad single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantun Electron. QE-18, 535-542 (1982).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, "Chirped fiber bragg gratings for electrically tunable time delay lines," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 408-416 (2005) 4.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, G. Guerra, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long period gratings coated with $\delta$ form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715 (2005).

S. S. Saini, C. Stanford, S. M. Lee, J. Park, P. DeShong, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Monolayer detection of biochemical agents using etched-core fiber bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1341-1343 (2007).

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, "Refractive index sensor based on micro-structured fiber bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

I. DelVillar, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic nanorefractometer based on one-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures with two defects," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 3, 293-299 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Jin, S. Han, X. Meng, B. Cheng, D. Zhang, "Demultiplexer using directly resonant tunnelling between point defects and waveguides in a photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4771-4773 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlac, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, "Thinned and micro-structured fiber bragg gratings: Towards new all fiber high sensitivity chemical sensors," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 734-741 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

C. R. Giles, "Lightwave applications of fiber bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1391-1404 (1997).

T. Asano, M. Mochizuki, S. Noda, M. Okano, M. Imada, "A channel drop filter using a single defect in a 2-D photonic crystal slab-defect engineering with respect to polarization mode and ratio of emissions from upper and lower sides," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1370-1376 (2003).

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

Nature (6)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).

J. Atencia, D. J. Beebe, "Controlled microfluidic interfaces," Nature 437, 648-655 (2005).

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).

A. J. deMello, "Control and detection of chemical reactions in microfluidic systems," Nature 442, 394-402 (2006).

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure," Nature 407, 608-608 (2000).

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, A. Alleman, "Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Nature 407, 983-983 (2000).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, A. Ankiewicz, "Wavelength splitting in photonic bandgap structures with multiple defects," Opt. Commun. 237, 351-355 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (6)

I. DelVillar, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, R. O. Claus, "Analysis of one-dimensional photonic bandgap structures with a liquid crystal defect towards development of fiber-optic tunable wavelength filters," Opt. Exp. 11, 430-436 (2003).

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A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber bragg gratings part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).

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M. Delgado-Pinar, J. Mora, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, B. Ortega, J. Capmany, "Tunable and reconfigurable microwave filter by use of a Bragg-grating-based acousto-optic superlattice modulator," Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).

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