Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the ultimate low loss property for several realistic core shapes in triangular-type air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers (PBGFs) through a full-vector modal solver based on the finite element method. We show that the surface mode free condition is expressed as a normalized silica-ring thickness $T = 0.5$ for any core size and the cladding structural parameters, regardless the core radius of the silica-ring is one of the main factors of dominating the surface mode's condition, and the wavelength range of the PBG changes on varying the structural parameters of the cladding. Moreover, we propose a novel type of PBGF without surface mode, which exhibits lower scattering losses caused by surface roughness of the silica-ring in comparison to 19 cell-core PBGFs and suppresses the mode coupling between fundamental-like and higher order modes when compared to 37 cell-core PBGFs.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
  2. S. E. Barkou, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, "Silica-air photonic crystal fiber design that permits waveguiding by a true photonic bandgap effect," Opt. Lett. 24, 46-48 (1999).
  3. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
  4. J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, T. Søndergaard, A. Bjarklev, "Analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 96-98 (2000).
  5. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).
  6. G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Opt. Exp. 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
  7. J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
  8. T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4080-4087 (2004).
  9. J. Tuominen, T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, "Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references," Opt. Commun. 255, 272-277 (2005).
  10. F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. S. Light, "Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 3574-3576 (2006).
  11. P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Exp. 13, 236-244 (2005).
  12. T. Murao, K. Saitoh, N. J. Florous, M. Koshiba, "Design of effectively single-mode air-core photonic bandgap fiber with improved transmission characteristics for the realization of ultimate low loss waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 4268-4280 (2007).
  13. K. Saitoh, N. J. Florous, T. Murao, M. Koshiba, "Realistic design of large-hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers with suppreded higher order modes and surface modes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2440-2447 (2007).
  14. M. Yan, P. Shum, "Air guiding with honeycomb photonic bandgap fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 64-66 (2005).
  15. M. Yan, P. Shum, J. Hu, "Design of air-guiding honeycomb photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 465-467 (2005).
  16. M. Chen, R. Yu, "Analysis of photonic bandgaps in modified honeycomb structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 819-821 (2004).
  17. L. Vincetti, F. Poli, S. Selleri, "Confinement loss and nonlinearity analysis of air-guiding modified honeycomb photonic bandgap fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 508-510 (2006).
  18. T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Design of air-guiding modified honeycomb photonic bandgap fibers for effectively single-mode operation," Opt. Exp. 14, 2404-2412 (2006).
  19. L. Vincetti, M. Maini, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, "Numerical analysis of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers with modified honeycomb lattice," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 903-912 (2006).
  20. Y. Li, C. Wang, X. Lü, M. Hu, Y. Chen, B. Liu, L. Chai, "Bandgap properties of Kagome photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. B 86, 235-242 (2007).
  21. Y. Li, C. Wang, M. Hu, B. Liu, L. Chai, "Bandgap properties of modified square photonic crystal fibers," Physica E 39, 26-29 (2007).
  22. M. Yan, P. Shum, "Improved air-silica photonic crystal with a triangular airhole arrangement for hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber design," Opt. Lett. 30, 1920-1922 (2005).
  23. T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H. R. Simonsen, M. D. Nielsen, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Bjarklev, "Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: Spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 11-15 (2004).
  24. P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Exp. 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
  25. C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
  26. K. Saitoh, N. A. Mortensen, M. Koshiba, "Air-core photonic bandgap fibers: The impact of surface modes," Opt. Exp. 12, 394-400 (2004).
  27. J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
  28. H. K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, "Designing air-core photonic bandgap fibers free of surface modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551-556 (2004).
  29. H. K. Kim, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, J. Shin, S. Fan, "Simulations of the effect of the core ring on surface and air-core modes in photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 3436-3442 (2004).
  30. F. Poletti, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, T. M. Monro, "The effect of core asymmetries on the polarization properties of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 9115-9124 (2005).
  31. R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. R. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Optimizing the usable bandwidth and loss through core design in realistic hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 7974-7985 (2006).
  32. R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. R. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Comparison of mode properties of 7 and 19 cells core hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007) paper OML 5.
  33. R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. R. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Design of 7 and 19 cells core air-guiding photonic crystal fibers for low-loss, wide bandwidth and dispersion controlled operation," Opt. Exp. 15, 17577-17586 (2007).
  34. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).
  35. F. Benabid, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre: New light guidance for new science and technology," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 3439-3462 (2006).
  36. T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Realization of single-moded broadband air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1666-1668 (2006).
  37. J. Lægsgaard, N. A. Mortensen, A. Bjarklev, "Mode areas and field-energy distribution in honeycomb photonic bandgap fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 2037-2045 (2003).

2007 (6)

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, N. J. Florous, M. Koshiba, "Design of effectively single-mode air-core photonic bandgap fiber with improved transmission characteristics for the realization of ultimate low loss waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 4268-4280 (2007).

K. Saitoh, N. J. Florous, T. Murao, M. Koshiba, "Realistic design of large-hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers with suppreded higher order modes and surface modes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2440-2447 (2007).

Y. Li, C. Wang, X. Lü, M. Hu, Y. Chen, B. Liu, L. Chai, "Bandgap properties of Kagome photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. B 86, 235-242 (2007).

Y. Li, C. Wang, M. Hu, B. Liu, L. Chai, "Bandgap properties of modified square photonic crystal fibers," Physica E 39, 26-29 (2007).

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. R. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Comparison of mode properties of 7 and 19 cells core hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007) paper OML 5.

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. R. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Design of 7 and 19 cells core air-guiding photonic crystal fibers for low-loss, wide bandwidth and dispersion controlled operation," Opt. Exp. 15, 17577-17586 (2007).

2006 (7)

F. Benabid, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre: New light guidance for new science and technology," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 3439-3462 (2006).

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Realization of single-moded broadband air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1666-1668 (2006).

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. S. Light, "Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 3574-3576 (2006).

L. Vincetti, F. Poli, S. Selleri, "Confinement loss and nonlinearity analysis of air-guiding modified honeycomb photonic bandgap fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 508-510 (2006).

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Design of air-guiding modified honeycomb photonic bandgap fibers for effectively single-mode operation," Opt. Exp. 14, 2404-2412 (2006).

L. Vincetti, M. Maini, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, "Numerical analysis of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers with modified honeycomb lattice," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 903-912 (2006).

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. R. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Optimizing the usable bandwidth and loss through core design in realistic hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 7974-7985 (2006).

2005 (7)

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Exp. 13, 236-244 (2005).

M. Yan, P. Shum, "Air guiding with honeycomb photonic bandgap fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 64-66 (2005).

M. Yan, P. Shum, J. Hu, "Design of air-guiding honeycomb photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 465-467 (2005).

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Exp. 13, 8277-8285 (2005).

J. Tuominen, T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, "Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references," Opt. Commun. 255, 272-277 (2005).

F. Poletti, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, T. M. Monro, "The effect of core asymmetries on the polarization properties of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 9115-9124 (2005).

M. Yan, P. Shum, "Improved air-silica photonic crystal with a triangular airhole arrangement for hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber design," Opt. Lett. 30, 1920-1922 (2005).

2004 (7)

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H. R. Simonsen, M. D. Nielsen, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Bjarklev, "Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: Spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 11-15 (2004).

K. Saitoh, N. A. Mortensen, M. Koshiba, "Air-core photonic bandgap fibers: The impact of surface modes," Opt. Exp. 12, 394-400 (2004).

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 1485-1496 (2004).

H. K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, "Designing air-core photonic bandgap fibers free of surface modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551-556 (2004).

H. K. Kim, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, J. Shin, S. Fan, "Simulations of the effect of the core ring on surface and air-core modes in photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 3436-3442 (2004).

M. Chen, R. Yu, "Analysis of photonic bandgaps in modified honeycomb structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 819-821 (2004).

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4080-4087 (2004).

2003 (4)

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Opt. Exp. 11, 1613-1620 (2003).

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).

J. Lægsgaard, N. A. Mortensen, A. Bjarklev, "Mode areas and field-energy distribution in honeycomb photonic bandgap fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 2037-2045 (2003).

2002 (2)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

S. E. Barkou, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, "Silica-air photonic crystal fiber design that permits waveguiding by a true photonic bandgap effect," Opt. Lett. 24, 46-48 (1999).

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

1995 (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Li, C. Wang, X. Lü, M. Hu, Y. Chen, B. Liu, L. Chai, "Bandgap properties of Kagome photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. B 86, 235-242 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Yan, P. Shum, "Air guiding with honeycomb photonic bandgap fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 64-66 (2005).

M. Chen, R. Yu, "Analysis of photonic bandgaps in modified honeycomb structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 819-821 (2004).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, "Designing air-core photonic bandgap fibers free of surface modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551-556 (2004).

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Realization of single-moded broadband air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1666-1668 (2006).

L. Vincetti, F. Poli, S. Selleri, "Confinement loss and nonlinearity analysis of air-guiding modified honeycomb photonic bandgap fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 508-510 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H. R. Simonsen, M. D. Nielsen, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Bjarklev, "Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: Spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 11-15 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

K. Saitoh, N. J. Florous, T. Murao, M. Koshiba, "Realistic design of large-hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers with suppreded higher order modes and surface modes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2440-2447 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

J. Lægsgaard, N. A. Mortensen, A. Bjarklev, "Mode areas and field-energy distribution in honeycomb photonic bandgap fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 2037-2045 (2003).

Nature (2)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (2)

F. Poletti, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, T. M. Monro, "The effect of core asymmetries on the polarization properties of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 9115-9124 (2005).

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. R. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Optimizing the usable bandwidth and loss through core design in realistic hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 7974-7985 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (1)

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. S. Light, "Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 3574-3576 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Tuominen, T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, "Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references," Opt. Commun. 255, 272-277 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (10)

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Opt. Exp. 11, 1613-1620 (2003).

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4080-4087 (2004).

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Exp. 13, 236-244 (2005).

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, N. J. Florous, M. Koshiba, "Design of effectively single-mode air-core photonic bandgap fiber with improved transmission characteristics for the realization of ultimate low loss waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 4268-4280 (2007).

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Design of air-guiding modified honeycomb photonic bandgap fibers for effectively single-mode operation," Opt. Exp. 14, 2404-2412 (2006).

H. K. Kim, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, J. Shin, S. Fan, "Simulations of the effect of the core ring on surface and air-core modes in photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 3436-3442 (2004).

K. Saitoh, N. A. Mortensen, M. Koshiba, "Air-core photonic bandgap fibers: The impact of surface modes," Opt. Exp. 12, 394-400 (2004).

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 1485-1496 (2004).

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Exp. 13, 8277-8285 (2005).

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. R. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Design of 7 and 19 cells core air-guiding photonic crystal fibers for low-loss, wide bandwidth and dispersion controlled operation," Opt. Exp. 15, 17577-17586 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Vincetti, M. Maini, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, "Numerical analysis of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers with modified honeycomb lattice," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 903-912 (2006).

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (1)

F. Benabid, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre: New light guidance for new science and technology," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 3439-3462 (2006).

Physica E (1)

Y. Li, C. Wang, M. Hu, B. Liu, L. Chai, "Bandgap properties of modified square photonic crystal fibers," Physica E 39, 26-29 (2007).

Proc. OFC/NFOEC (1)

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. R. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Comparison of mode properties of 7 and 19 cells core hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007) paper OML 5.

Science (2)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

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