Abstract

Photonic crystal nanocavities are expected to make great contributions in areas of physics and engineering such as the slowing and stopping of light and optical quantum information processing. We first review approaches to the goal of increasing the quality factor of two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities. Losses from a cavity can be suppressed, with a consequent increase of the quality factor, by containing the electromagnetic field in the form of a Gaussian envelope function. We then propose a new method of analytical cavity design, based on the detailed investigation of waveguide modes, in order to realize Gaussian cavity mode fields. This has enabled us to achieve a quality factor of ${{\sim}10^{9}}$ while maintaining a cavity volume of one cubic wavelength.

© 2008 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "High-$Q$ photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
  2. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-$Q$ photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 13, 1202-1214 (2005).
  3. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-$Q$ photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
  4. T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-$Q$ nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
  5. E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-$Q$ photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
  6. S. Noda, M. Fujita, T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).
  7. Y. Takahashi, H. Hagino, Y. Tanaka, B. S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "High-$Q$ nanocavity with a 2-ns photon lifetime," Opt. Express 15, 17206-17213 (2007).
  8. T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
  9. S. Noda, "Seeking the ultimate nanolaser," Science 314, 260-261 (2006).
  10. Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the $Q$ factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
  11. M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004).
  12. S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
  13. M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 14, 6308-6315 (2006).
  14. S. Noda, A. Chutinan, M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure," Nature 407, 608-610 (2000).
  15. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300, 1537 (2003).
  16. H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14, 3491-3496 (2006).
  17. M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandão, M. B. Plenio, "Strongly interacting polaritons in coupled arrays of cavities," Nature Phys. 2, 849-855 (2006).
  18. K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
  19. Y. Akahane, M. Mochizuki, T. Asano, Y. Tanaka, S. Noda:, "Design of a channel drop filter by using a donor-type cavity with high-quality factor in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1341-1343 (2003).
  20. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda:, "Investigation of high-$Q$ channel drop filters using donor-type defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1512-1514 (2003).
  21. K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
  22. W. Kohn, "Analytic properties of Bloch waves and Wannier functions," Phys. Rev. 115, 809-821 (1959).
  23. B. S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Physical origin of the small modal volume of ultra-high-$Q$ photonic double-heterostructure nanocavities," New J. Phys. 8, 209 (2006).
  24. M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).

2007 (4)

S. Noda, M. Fujita, T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).

Y. Takahashi, H. Hagino, Y. Tanaka, B. S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "High-$Q$ nanocavity with a 2-ns photon lifetime," Opt. Express 15, 17206-17213 (2007).

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the $Q$ factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).

2006 (8)

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 14, 6308-6315 (2006).

S. Noda, "Seeking the ultimate nanolaser," Science 314, 260-261 (2006).

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-$Q$ nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-$Q$ photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).

H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14, 3491-3496 (2006).

M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandão, M. B. Plenio, "Strongly interacting polaritons in coupled arrays of cavities," Nature Phys. 2, 849-855 (2006).

B. S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Physical origin of the small modal volume of ultra-high-$Q$ photonic double-heterostructure nanocavities," New J. Phys. 8, 209 (2006).

2005 (2)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-$Q$ photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 13, 1202-1214 (2005).

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-$Q$ photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).

2004 (2)

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004).

2003 (5)

Y. Akahane, M. Mochizuki, T. Asano, Y. Tanaka, S. Noda:, "Design of a channel drop filter by using a donor-type cavity with high-quality factor in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1341-1343 (2003).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda:, "Investigation of high-$Q$ channel drop filters using donor-type defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1512-1514 (2003).

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "High-$Q$ photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300, 1537 (2003).

2001 (1)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).

2000 (1)

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure," Nature 407, 608-610 (2000).

1959 (1)

W. Kohn, "Analytic properties of Bloch waves and Wannier functions," Phys. Rev. 115, 809-821 (1959).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Akahane, M. Mochizuki, T. Asano, Y. Tanaka, S. Noda:, "Design of a channel drop filter by using a donor-type cavity with high-quality factor in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1341-1343 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda:, "Investigation of high-$Q$ channel drop filters using donor-type defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1512-1514 (2003).

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-$Q$ photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-$Q$ nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).

Nature Photon. (1)

S. Noda, M. Fujita, T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).

Nature (4)

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "High-$Q$ photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure," Nature 407, 608-610 (2000).

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).

Nature Mater. (2)

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the $Q$ factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-$Q$ photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).

Nature Phys. (1)

M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandão, M. B. Plenio, "Strongly interacting polaritons in coupled arrays of cavities," Nature Phys. 2, 849-855 (2006).

New J. Phys. (1)

B. S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Physical origin of the small modal volume of ultra-high-$Q$ photonic double-heterostructure nanocavities," New J. Phys. 8, 209 (2006).

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004).

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. Kohn, "Analytic properties of Bloch waves and Wannier functions," Phys. Rev. 115, 809-821 (1959).

Science (2)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300, 1537 (2003).

S. Noda, "Seeking the ultimate nanolaser," Science 314, 260-261 (2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.