Abstract

This paper investigates an optical nanocavity sensor based on a 1-D photonic bandgap. The sensor is unique in that it provides high $Q$-factor (sensitivity), and low attenuation and wavelength variation. It incorporates an optical splitter/combiner structure in realizing multiple sensing. Active sensing can be achieved by implementing a p–i–n diode. The optical diode requires an on state power of 81 nW with rise and fall times of 0.2 ns and 0.043 ns, respectively. The sensitivity of the active sensor, at 120, is a magnitude higher than conventional surface sensing and is characterized with respect to the optical phase change and by the diode biasing voltage. It will be shown that the aspect of multiple sensing, resonant wavelengths, the $Q$-factor and transmission can be optimized by tuning the length of the cavity and the radius of the two innermost air holes. This method allows ease of fabrication by not having to vary the waveguide width and height to obtain tuning effects.

© 2008 IEEE

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2007 (2)

2006 (2)

C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, E. P. Li Graham, T. Reed, "Tunable and sensitive biophotonic waveguides based on photonic-bandgap microcavities," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 5, 478-484 (2006).

S. T. Lim, C. E. Png, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, "Optically switched arrayed waveguide gratings using phase modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1461-1468 (2006).

2004 (2)

Y. A. V. , S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004).

C. E. Png, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, G. T. Reed, "Optical phase modulators for MHz and GHz modulation in silicon-on-insulator (SOI)," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1573-1583 (2004).

2002 (3)

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, T. Baba, "Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1033-1038 (2002).

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in aSi/SiO2," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1033-1038 (2002).

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner0mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).

2001 (1)

P. D. Hewitt, G. T. Reed, "Improved modulation performance of a silicon p–i–n device by trench isolation," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 387 (2001).

1999 (1)

D. J. Ripin, K. Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, E. R. Thoen, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, L. A. Kolodziejski, "One-dimensional photonic bandgap microcavities for strong optical). confinement in GaAs and GaAs/Al$_{x}$O$_{y}$ Semiconductor waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2152-2160 (1999).

1998 (1)

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, "Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 583-592 (1998).

1997 (1)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, "Phonotic-bandgap mocrocavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).

1994 (1)

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, A. G. Rickman, "Low-loss, single-mode, optical phase modulator in SIMOX material," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1394-1400 (1994).

1993 (1)

D. Clerc, W. Lukosz, "Integrated optical grating coupler as refractormeter and (bio-)chemical sensor," Sen. Actuators B, Chem. 11, 461-465 (1993).

1991 (1)

W. Lukosz, "Principles and sensitivity of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and munosensing," Biosensors Bioelectron. 6, 215-225 (1991).

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

1986 (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon," SPIE Integrated Opt. Circuit Emg. 704, 32-37 (1986).

Biosensors Bioelectron. (1)

W. Lukosz, "Principles and sensitivity of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and munosensing," Biosensors Bioelectron. 6, 215-225 (1991).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner0mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

S. T. Lim, C. E. Png, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, "Optically switched arrayed waveguide gratings using phase modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1461-1468 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, E. P. Li Graham, T. Reed, "Tunable and sensitive biophotonic waveguides based on photonic-bandgap microcavities," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 5, 478-484 (2006).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (2)

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, T. Baba, "Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1033-1038 (2002).

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in aSi/SiO2," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1033-1038 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, A. G. Rickman, "Low-loss, single-mode, optical phase modulator in SIMOX material," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1394-1400 (1994).

P. D. Hewitt, G. T. Reed, "Improved modulation performance of a silicon p–i–n device by trench isolation," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 387 (2001).

C. E. Png, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, G. T. Reed, "Optical phase modulators for MHz and GHz modulation in silicon-on-insulator (SOI)," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1573-1583 (2004).

D. J. Ripin, K. Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, E. R. Thoen, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, L. A. Kolodziejski, "One-dimensional photonic bandgap microcavities for strong optical). confinement in GaAs and GaAs/Al$_{x}$O$_{y}$ Semiconductor waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2152-2160 (1999).

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, "Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 583-592 (1998).

Nature (1)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, "Phonotic-bandgap mocrocavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).

Opt. Express (3)

Sen. Actuators B, Chem. (1)

D. Clerc, W. Lukosz, "Integrated optical grating coupler as refractormeter and (bio-)chemical sensor," Sen. Actuators B, Chem. 11, 461-465 (1993).

SPIE Integrated Opt. Circuit Emg. (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon," SPIE Integrated Opt. Circuit Emg. 704, 32-37 (1986).

Other (5)

http://www.cst.com.

S. T. Lim, C. E. Png, E. P. Li, "Electromagnetic components in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide for biosensing applications," Proc. 17th Int. Zurich Symp. Electromagnetic Compatibility (2006) pp. 77-80.

I. E. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnston, S. Day, J. Luff, H. Tsang, M. Asghari, "Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly-efficient high-speed electronic variable optical attenuators," Proc. OFC (2003) pp. 6-8.

I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, R. O'Carroll, A. Knights, P. Sharp, G. F. Hopper, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, "Single-chip variable optical attenuator and multiplexer subsystem integration," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 72-73.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, "Low—Loss photonic wires and compact ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator," LEO Benelux Annual Symp. Enschede, The Netherlands (2003).

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