Abstract

We present characteristics of very thin Au strip waveguides based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along thin Au strips embedded in polymers. We also report a 10 Gbps optical signal transmission via LR-SPPs with the pig-tailed Au strip waveguide at a telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 $\mu{\hbox {m}}$. We limited the thickness, width, and length up to $\sim$20nm, $\sim {\hbox {10}}\ \mu{\hbox {m}}$, and $\sim$5 cm, respectively, for practical applications. At 1.55 $\mu{\hbox {m}}$, loss properties of the Au strip waveguides were theoretically and experimentally evaluated with thickness, width and cladding material. The lowest propagation loss of $\sim$1.4dB/cm was experimentally obtained with the 14-nm-thick and 2-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$-wide Au strip. With a single-mode fiber, the lowest coupling loss of less than 0.1 dB/facet was achieved with the 14-nm-thick and 7.5-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$-wide Au strip. The lowest insertion loss was obtained 7.7dB with the 14-nm-thick, 5-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$-wide, and 1.5-cm-long Au strip. The propagation loss was improved approximately 30% for the 17-nm-thick Au strip with lowering the refractive index of the cladding polymer by 0.01. In the 10 Gbps optical signal transmission experiment, the LR-SPP waveguide exhibits an excellent eye opening and a 2.2 dB power penalty at $10^{-12}$ bit error rate. These all results indicate that the LR-SPP waveguide is a potential transmission line for optical interconnects to overcome inherent problems in electric interconnects.

© 2008 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. M.-H. Lee, J. J. Ju, S. Park, J. Y. Do, S. K. Park, "Polymer-based devices for optical communications," ETRI J. 24, 259-269 (2002).
  2. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
  3. R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon-polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844-846 (2000).
  4. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waeguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).
  5. A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).
  6. R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).
  7. R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Exp. 13, 977-984 (2005).
  8. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Laluet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonaors," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
  9. A. Boltasseva, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polarition waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topic. Quantum Electron. 12, 1233-1241 (2006).
  10. Z. Han, L. Liu, E. Forsberg, "Ultra-compact directional couplers and Mach–Zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritions," Opt. Commun. 259, 690-695 (2006).
  11. S. Park, S. H. Song, "Polymeric variable optical attenuator based on long range surface plasmon polaritons," Electron. Lett. 42, 402-404 (2006).
  12. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 5833-5835 (2004).
  13. H. S. Won, K. C. Kim, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, P. S. Kim, S. Park, S. I. Kim, "Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011110 (2006).
  14. N. Savage, "Linking with light," IEEE Spectrum 32-36 (2002).
  15. B. Casper, G. Balamurugan, J. E. Jaussi, J. Kennedy, M. Mansuri, F. O'Mahony, R. Mooney, "Future microprocessor interfaces: Analysis, design and optimization," Proc. IEEE 2007 Custom Integrated Circuits Conf. (2006) pp. 479-486.
  16. http://www.chemoptics.co.kr.
  17. Numerical Techniques for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Passive Structures (Wiley, 1989).
  18. Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  19. P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).
  20. M.-s. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, W.-K. Kim, M.-H. Lee, "‘Metal binding factor’—A core parameter for long-range surface-plasmon-polariton modes," Proc. CLEO/Pacific Rim (2007) pp. 806-807.
  21. J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, "Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
  22. J. J. Ju, M.-s. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps optical signal transmission via long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
  23. J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, M.-H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface plasmon waveguides," ETRI J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117-1-171117-3 (2007).

2007 (3)

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, "Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).

J. J. Ju, M.-s. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps optical signal transmission via long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, M.-H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface plasmon waveguides," ETRI J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117-1-171117-3 (2007).

2006 (6)

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).

H. S. Won, K. C. Kim, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, P. S. Kim, S. Park, S. I. Kim, "Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011110 (2006).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Laluet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonaors," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

A. Boltasseva, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polarition waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topic. Quantum Electron. 12, 1233-1241 (2006).

Z. Han, L. Liu, E. Forsberg, "Ultra-compact directional couplers and Mach–Zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritions," Opt. Commun. 259, 690-695 (2006).

S. Park, S. H. Song, "Polymeric variable optical attenuator based on long range surface plasmon polaritons," Electron. Lett. 42, 402-404 (2006).

2005 (2)

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Exp. 13, 977-984 (2005).

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).

2004 (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 5833-5835 (2004).

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waeguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).

2002 (2)

M.-H. Lee, J. J. Ju, S. Park, J. Y. Do, S. K. Park, "Polymer-based devices for optical communications," ETRI J. 24, 259-269 (2002).

N. Savage, "Linking with light," IEEE Spectrum 32-36 (2002).

2000 (2)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon-polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844-846 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waeguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 5833-5835 (2004).

H. S. Won, K. C. Kim, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, P. S. Kim, S. Park, S. I. Kim, "Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011110 (2006).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Park, S. H. Song, "Polymeric variable optical attenuator based on long range surface plasmon polaritons," Electron. Lett. 42, 402-404 (2006).

ETRI J. (2)

M.-H. Lee, J. J. Ju, S. Park, J. Y. Do, S. K. Park, "Polymer-based devices for optical communications," ETRI J. 24, 259-269 (2002).

J. J. Ju, M.-s. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps optical signal transmission via long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).

ETRI J., Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, M.-H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface plasmon waveguides," ETRI J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117-1-171117-3 (2007).

IEEE Spectrum (1)

N. Savage, "Linking with light," IEEE Spectrum 32-36 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Topic. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Boltasseva, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polarition waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topic. Quantum Electron. 12, 1233-1241 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, "Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Laluet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonaors," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Exp. 13, 977-984 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon-polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844-846 (2000).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Han, L. Liu, E. Forsberg, "Ultra-compact directional couplers and Mach–Zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritions," Opt. Commun. 259, 690-695 (2006).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).

Other (5)

M.-s. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, W.-K. Kim, M.-H. Lee, "‘Metal binding factor’—A core parameter for long-range surface-plasmon-polariton modes," Proc. CLEO/Pacific Rim (2007) pp. 806-807.

B. Casper, G. Balamurugan, J. E. Jaussi, J. Kennedy, M. Mansuri, F. O'Mahony, R. Mooney, "Future microprocessor interfaces: Analysis, design and optimization," Proc. IEEE 2007 Custom Integrated Circuits Conf. (2006) pp. 479-486.

http://www.chemoptics.co.kr.

Numerical Techniques for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Passive Structures (Wiley, 1989).

Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.