Abstract

We report time-resolved measurements of the linewidth enhancement factors ($\alpha$-factors) $\alpha_{cr}$, $\alpha_{\rm CH}$, and $\alpha_{\rm TPA}$, associated with the adiabatic carrier recovery, carrier heating, and two-photon absorption dynamical processes, respectively, in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) with different degrees of dimensionality–one InAs/InGaAsP/InP quantum dot (0-D), one InAs/InAlGaAs/InP quantum dash (1-D), and a matching InGaAsP/InGaAsP/InP quantum well (2-D)—all operating near 1.55-$\mu{\hbox{m}}$ wavelengths. We find the lowest $\alpha_{cr}$ values in the QD SOA, 2–10, compared to 8–16 in the QW, and values of $\alpha_{\rm CH}$ and $\alpha_{\rm TPA}$ that are also lower than in the QW. In the QD SOA, the $\alpha$-factors exhibit little wavelength dependence over the gain bandwidth, promising for wide-bandwidth all-optical applications. We also find significant differences in the $\alpha$-factors of lasers with the same structure, due to the differences between gain changes that are induced optically or through the electrical bias. For the lasers we find the QW structure instead has the lower $\alpha$-factor, having implications for directly modulated laser applications.

© 2008 IEEE

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  2. I. Tomkos, D. Chowdhury, J. Conradi, D. Culverhouse, K. Ennser, C. Giroux, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, A. Kruse, S. Kumar, N. Lascar, I. Roudas, M. Sharma, R. S. Vodhanel, C. C. Wang, "Demonstration of negative dispersion fibers for DWDM metropolitan area networks," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 439-460 (2001).
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  4. J. Wang, A. Maitra, C. G. Poulton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "Temporal dynamics of the alpha factor in semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 891-900 (2007).
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  7. Z. Mi, P. Bhattacharya, J. Yang, "Growth and characteristics of ultralow threshold 1.45 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$ metamorphic InAs tunnel injection quantum dot lasers on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 153109-1-153109-3 (2006).
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  9. A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, K. J. Malloy, "Comparison of the carrier induced refractive index, gain, and linewidth enhancement factor in quantum dot and quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058-1060 (2004).
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  12. S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbeina, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, D. Bimberg, "Linewidth enhancement factor in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1423-1429 (2004).
  13. M. van der Poel, E. Gehrig, O. Hess, D. Birkedal, J. M. Hvam, "Ultrafast gain dynamics in quantum-dot amplifiers: Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1115-1123 (2005).
  14. J. Kim, S. L. Chuang, "Theoretical and experimental study of optical gain, refractive index change, and linewidth enhancement factor of p-doped quantum-dot lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 942-952 (2006).
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  16. A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).
  17. G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor-laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).
  18. J. Mork, J. Mark, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of semiconductor laser devices: Experiments and modeling," Proc. SPIE 2399, 146-159 (1995).
  19. A. J. Zilkie, J. Meier, P. W. E. Smith, M. Mojahedi, J. S. Aitchison, P. J. Poole, C. N. Allen, P. Barrios, D. Poitras, "Femtosecond gain and index dynamics in an InAs/InGaAsP quantum dot amplifier operating at 1.55 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Opt. Express 14, 11453-11459 (2006).
  20. K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode-lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).
  21. P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mork, J. M. Hvam, "Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlinearities in a heterodyne pump-probe experiment," Opt. Express 7, 107-112 (2000).
  22. J. Mork, A. Mecozzi, "Theory of the ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 1803-1816 (1996).
  23. A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Theory of heterodyne pump-probe experiments with femtosecond pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 2437-2452 (1996).
  24. M. van der Poel, D. Birkedal, J. Hvam, M. Laemmlin, D. Bimberg, "Alpha parameter in quantum-dot amplifier under optical and electrical carrier modulation," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) San FranciscoCA (2004).
  25. A. Martinez, A. Lemaitre, K. Merghem, L. Ferlazzo, C. Dupuis, A. Ramdane, J.-G. Provosta, B. Dagens, O. L. Gouezigou, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, "Static and dynamic measurements of the alpha-factor of five-quantum-dot-layer single-mode lasers emitting at 1.3 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$ on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211115-1-211115-3 (2005).
  26. A. Schonfelder, S. Weisser, J. D. Ralston, J. Rosenzweig, "Alpha-factor improvements in high-speed P-doped ${\hbox{In}}_{0.35}{\hbox{Ga}}_{0.65}{\hbox{As/GaAs}}$ MQW lasers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1685-1686 (1993).
  27. J. Stohs, D. J. Bossert, D. J. Gallant, S. R. J. Brueck, "Gain, refractive index change, and linewidth enhancement factor in broad-area GaAs and InGaAs quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449-1459 (2001).
  28. D. J. Bossert, D. Gallant, "Gain, refractive index, and $\alpha$-parameter in InGaAs-GaAs SQW broad-area lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 322-324 (1996).
  29. R. Giller, R. J. Manning, D. Cotter, "Gain and phase recovery of optically excited semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1061-1063 (2006).
  30. I. Kang, C. Dorrer, "Measurements of gain and phase dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier using spectrograms," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper MF43.

2007 (2)

J. Wang, A. Maitra, C. G. Poulton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "Temporal dynamics of the alpha factor in semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 891-900 (2007).

A. J. Zilkie, J. Meier, M. Mojahedi, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, D. Poitras, T. J. Rotter, C. Yang, A. Stintz, K. J. Malloy, P. W. E. Smith, J. S. Aitchison, "Carrier dynamics of quantum-dot, quantum-dash, and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 982-991 (2007).

2006 (5)

Z. Mi, P. Bhattacharya, J. Yang, "Growth and characteristics of ultralow threshold 1.45 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$ metamorphic InAs tunnel injection quantum dot lasers on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 153109-1-153109-3 (2006).

J. M. Vazquez, H. H. Nilsson, J. Z. Zhang, I. Galbraith, "Linewidth enhancement factor of quantum-dot optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 986-993 (2006).

J. Kim, S. L. Chuang, "Theoretical and experimental study of optical gain, refractive index change, and linewidth enhancement factor of p-doped quantum-dot lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 942-952 (2006).

R. Giller, R. J. Manning, D. Cotter, "Gain and phase recovery of optically excited semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1061-1063 (2006).

A. J. Zilkie, J. Meier, P. W. E. Smith, M. Mojahedi, J. S. Aitchison, P. J. Poole, C. N. Allen, P. Barrios, D. Poitras, "Femtosecond gain and index dynamics in an InAs/InGaAsP quantum dot amplifier operating at 1.55 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Opt. Express 14, 11453-11459 (2006).

2005 (3)

A. Martinez, A. Lemaitre, K. Merghem, L. Ferlazzo, C. Dupuis, A. Ramdane, J.-G. Provosta, B. Dagens, O. L. Gouezigou, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, "Static and dynamic measurements of the alpha-factor of five-quantum-dot-layer single-mode lasers emitting at 1.3 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$ on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211115-1-211115-3 (2005).

D. Rodriguez, I. Esquivias, S. Deubert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Krakowski, M. Calligaro, O. Parillaud, "Gain, index variation, and linewidth-enhancement factor in 980-nm quantum-well and quantum-dot lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 117-126 (2005).

M. van der Poel, E. Gehrig, O. Hess, D. Birkedal, J. M. Hvam, "Ultrafast gain dynamics in quantum-dot amplifiers: Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1115-1123 (2005).

2004 (2)

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbeina, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, D. Bimberg, "Linewidth enhancement factor in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1423-1429 (2004).

A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, K. J. Malloy, "Comparison of the carrier induced refractive index, gain, and linewidth enhancement factor in quantum dot and quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058-1060 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. Fathpour, P. Bhattacharya, S. Pradhan, S. Ghosh, "Linewidth enhancement factor and near-field pattern in tunnel injection ${\hbox{In}}_{0.4}{\hbox{Ga}}_{0.6}{\hbox{As}}$ self-assembled quantum dot lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1443-1445 (2003).

2001 (2)

I. Tomkos, D. Chowdhury, J. Conradi, D. Culverhouse, K. Ennser, C. Giroux, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, A. Kruse, S. Kumar, N. Lascar, I. Roudas, M. Sharma, R. S. Vodhanel, C. C. Wang, "Demonstration of negative dispersion fibers for DWDM metropolitan area networks," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 439-460 (2001).

J. Stohs, D. J. Bossert, D. J. Gallant, S. R. J. Brueck, "Gain, refractive index change, and linewidth enhancement factor in broad-area GaAs and InGaAs quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449-1459 (2001).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Chen, T. L. Sung, C. Y. Tsai, J. M. Rorison, "Theoretical modeling of carrier and lattice heating effects for frequency chirping in semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 917-919 (1999).

1997 (1)

A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).

1996 (3)

D. J. Bossert, D. Gallant, "Gain, refractive index, and $\alpha$-parameter in InGaAs-GaAs SQW broad-area lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 322-324 (1996).

J. Mork, A. Mecozzi, "Theory of the ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 1803-1816 (1996).

A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Theory of heterodyne pump-probe experiments with femtosecond pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 2437-2452 (1996).

1995 (1)

J. Mork, J. Mark, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of semiconductor laser devices: Experiments and modeling," Proc. SPIE 2399, 146-159 (1995).

1994 (1)

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode-lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).

1993 (2)

A. Schonfelder, S. Weisser, J. D. Ralston, J. Rosenzweig, "Alpha-factor improvements in high-speed P-doped ${\hbox{In}}_{0.35}{\hbox{Ga}}_{0.65}{\hbox{As/GaAs}}$ MQW lasers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1685-1686 (1993).

K. Hinton, T. Stephens, "Modeling high-speed optical-transmission systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 11, 380-392 (1993).

1991 (1)

C. T. Hultgren, E. P. Ippen, "Ultrafast refractive-index dynamics in algaas diode-laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 635-637 (1991).

1989 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor-laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor-lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259-264 (1982).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Martinez, A. Lemaitre, K. Merghem, L. Ferlazzo, C. Dupuis, A. Ramdane, J.-G. Provosta, B. Dagens, O. L. Gouezigou, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, "Static and dynamic measurements of the alpha-factor of five-quantum-dot-layer single-mode lasers emitting at 1.3 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$ on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211115-1-211115-3 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Z. Mi, P. Bhattacharya, J. Yang, "Growth and characteristics of ultralow threshold 1.45 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$ metamorphic InAs tunnel injection quantum dot lasers on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 153109-1-153109-3 (2006).

A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, K. J. Malloy, "Comparison of the carrier induced refractive index, gain, and linewidth enhancement factor in quantum dot and quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058-1060 (2004).

C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Chen, T. L. Sung, C. Y. Tsai, J. M. Rorison, "Theoretical modeling of carrier and lattice heating effects for frequency chirping in semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 917-919 (1999).

C. T. Hultgren, E. P. Ippen, "Ultrafast refractive-index dynamics in algaas diode-laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 635-637 (1991).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Fathpour, P. Bhattacharya, S. Pradhan, S. Ghosh, "Linewidth enhancement factor and near-field pattern in tunnel injection ${\hbox{In}}_{0.4}{\hbox{Ga}}_{0.6}{\hbox{As}}$ self-assembled quantum dot lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1443-1445 (2003).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Schonfelder, S. Weisser, J. D. Ralston, J. Rosenzweig, "Alpha-factor improvements in high-speed P-doped ${\hbox{In}}_{0.35}{\hbox{Ga}}_{0.65}{\hbox{As/GaAs}}$ MQW lasers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1685-1686 (1993).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor-laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

M. van der Poel, E. Gehrig, O. Hess, D. Birkedal, J. M. Hvam, "Ultrafast gain dynamics in quantum-dot amplifiers: Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1115-1123 (2005).

D. Rodriguez, I. Esquivias, S. Deubert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Krakowski, M. Calligaro, O. Parillaud, "Gain, index variation, and linewidth-enhancement factor in 980-nm quantum-well and quantum-dot lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 117-126 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbeina, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, D. Bimberg, "Linewidth enhancement factor in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1423-1429 (2004).

J. Kim, S. L. Chuang, "Theoretical and experimental study of optical gain, refractive index change, and linewidth enhancement factor of p-doped quantum-dot lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 942-952 (2006).

J. M. Vazquez, H. H. Nilsson, J. Z. Zhang, I. Galbraith, "Linewidth enhancement factor of quantum-dot optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 986-993 (2006).

A. J. Zilkie, J. Meier, M. Mojahedi, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, D. Poitras, T. J. Rotter, C. Yang, A. Stintz, K. J. Malloy, P. W. E. Smith, J. S. Aitchison, "Carrier dynamics of quantum-dot, quantum-dash, and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 982-991 (2007).

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor-lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259-264 (1982).

J. Stohs, D. J. Bossert, D. J. Gallant, S. R. J. Brueck, "Gain, refractive index change, and linewidth enhancement factor in broad-area GaAs and InGaAs quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449-1459 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

K. Hinton, T. Stephens, "Modeling high-speed optical-transmission systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 11, 380-392 (1993).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

I. Tomkos, D. Chowdhury, J. Conradi, D. Culverhouse, K. Ennser, C. Giroux, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, A. Kruse, S. Kumar, N. Lascar, I. Roudas, M. Sharma, R. S. Vodhanel, C. C. Wang, "Demonstration of negative dispersion fibers for DWDM metropolitan area networks," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 439-460 (2001).

A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Giller, R. J. Manning, D. Cotter, "Gain and phase recovery of optically excited semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1061-1063 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. J. Bossert, D. Gallant, "Gain, refractive index, and $\alpha$-parameter in InGaAs-GaAs SQW broad-area lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 322-324 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Wang, A. Maitra, C. G. Poulton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "Temporal dynamics of the alpha factor in semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 891-900 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (2)

J. Mork, A. Mecozzi, "Theory of the ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 1803-1816 (1996).

A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Theory of heterodyne pump-probe experiments with femtosecond pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 2437-2452 (1996).

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode-lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Mork, J. Mark, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of semiconductor laser devices: Experiments and modeling," Proc. SPIE 2399, 146-159 (1995).

Other (2)

M. van der Poel, D. Birkedal, J. Hvam, M. Laemmlin, D. Bimberg, "Alpha parameter in quantum-dot amplifier under optical and electrical carrier modulation," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) San FranciscoCA (2004).

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, "Measurements of gain and phase dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier using spectrograms," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper MF43.

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