Abstract

Microwatt light emission from a metal–oxide–semiconductor light-emitting diode (MOSLED) made by using ${\hbox {SiO}}_{\rm x}$ film with buried Si nanocrystals on Si nano-pillar array is demonstrated. The Si nano-pillar array obtained by drying the rapidly self-aggregated Ni nano-dot-masked Si substrate exhibit size, aspect ratio, and density of 30 nm, 10, and 2.8$\,\times 10 ^{10}~{\hbox {cm}}^{-2}$, respectively. These high-aspect-ratio Si nano-pillar array helps to enhance the Fowler–Nordheim tunneling-based carrier injection and to facilitate the complete relaxation on total internal reflection, thus increasing the quantum efficiency by one order of magnitude and improving the light extraction from the nano-roughened device surface by three times at least. The light-emission intensity, turn-on current and power-current slope of the MOSLED are 0.2 $~{\hbox {mW/cm}}^{2}$, 20-30 $\mu {\hbox {A}}$, and ${\hbox {3}}{\pm {\hbox {0.5}}}~{\hbox {mW/A}}$, respectively. At a biased current of 400 $\mu {\hbox {A}}$, the highest external quantum efficiency is over 0.2% to obtain the maximum EL power of ${> 1}~\mu {\hbox {W}}$. Compared with the same device made on smooth Si substrate under a power conversion ratio of 1$\,\times {\hbox {10}} ^{-4}$, such an output power performance is enhanced by at least one order of magnitude.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. C. H. Lin, S. C. Lee, Y. F. Chen, "Strong room-temperature photoluminescence of hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide and its correlation to porous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 902-904 (1993).
  2. L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, "Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals," Nature 408, 440-444 (2000).
  3. F. Iacona, G. Franzo, C. Spinella, "Correlation between luminescence and structural properties of Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1295-1303 (2000).
  4. G. G. Qin, A. P. Li, B. R. Zhang, B. C. Li, "Visible electroluminescence from semitransparent Au film/extra thin Si-rich silicon oxide film/p-Si structure," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2006-2009 (1995).
  5. H. Z. Song, X. M. Bao, N. S. Li, J. Y. Zhang, "Relation between electroluminescence and photoluminescence of ${\hbox {Si}}^{+}$-implanted ${\hbox {SiO}}_{2}$," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4028-4032 (1997).
  6. G. Franzo, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. D. Stefano, P. G. Fallica, F. Priolo, "Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures," Appl. Phys. A 74, 1-5 (2002).
  7. C.-J. Lin, G.-R. Lin, "Defect-enhanced visible electroluminescence of multi-energv silicon-implanted silicon dioxide film," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 441-447 (2005).
  8. G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, Y.-L. Chueh, "Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO$_{2}$," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094306-094306 (2005).
  9. L. T. Canham, "Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046-1048 (1993).
  10. P. B. Fischer, K. Dai, E. Chen, S. Y. Chou, "10 nm Si pillars fabricated using electron-beam lithography, reactive ion etching, and HF etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2524-2527 (1993).
  11. G. Nassiopoulos, S. Grigoropoulous, D. Papadimitriou, E. Gogolides, "Visible luminescence from one- and two-dimensional silicon structures produced by conventional lithographic and reactive ion etching techniques," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1114-1116 (1995).
  12. J. S. Lee, S. K. Kim, G. Y. Yeom, J. B. Yoo, C. Y. Park, "Fabrication of Si nano-pillar array through Ni nano-dot mask using inductively coupled plasma," Thin Solid Films 475, 41-44 (2005).
  13. Y. Homma, P. Finnie, T. Ogino, H. Noda, T. Urisu, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3083-3087 (1999).
  14. D. Crouse, A. Y.-H. Lo, E. Millar, M. Crouse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 49-51 (2000).
  15. H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, Mater. Sci. Eng., B B113, 125-129 (2004).
  16. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
  17. G.-R. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, H.-S. Lin, C.-C. Kao, "Rapid self-assembly of Ni nanodots on Si substrate covered by a less-adhesive and heat-accumulated ${\hbox {SiO}}_{2}$ layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) 073108.
  18. G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, H. C. Kuo, H.-S. Lin, C.-C. Kao, "Anomalous microphotoluminescence of high-aspect-ratio Si nanopillars formatted by dry-etching Si substrate with self-aggregated Ni nanodot mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 143102.
  19. G.-R. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, Y.-L. Chueh, "Synthesis of Si nano-pyramids at SiOx/Si interface for enhancing electroluminescence of Si-rich SiOx based MOS diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) 093126.
  20. G.-R. Lin, C.-K. Lin, C.-J. Lin, "Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in a nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids," Opt. Express 15, 2555-2563 (2007).
  21. D. K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization (Wiley, 1998) pp. 408.
  22. K. F. Schuegraf, C. M. Hu, ""Reliability of thin SiO$_{2}$," Semicond. Sci. Technol 9, 989-1004 (1994).
  23. R. H. Fowler, L. W. Nordheim, "Electron emission in intense electric fields," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 119, 173-181 (1928).
  24. E. H. Rhoderick, R. H. Williams, Metal-Semiconductor Contacts (Clarendon, 1988).
  25. J. Frenkel, "On the theory of electric breakdown of dielectric and electronic semiconductors," Phys. Rev. 54, 657 (1938).
  26. J. R. Yeargan, H. L. Taylor, "The Poole–Frenkel effect with compensation present," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5600-5604 (1968).
  27. Q. Y. Ye, R. Tsu, E. H. Nicollian, "Resonant tunneling via microcrystalline-silicon quantum confinement," Phys. Rev. B 44, 1806-1811 (1991).
  28. S. S. Gong, M. E. Burnham, N. D. Theodore, D. K. Schroder, "Evaluation of ${\hbox {Q}}_{\rm bd}$ for electrons tunneling from the ${\hbox {Si/SiO}}_{2}$ interface compared to electron tunneling from the poly-${\hbox {Si/SiO}}_{2}$ interface," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40, 1251-1257 (1993).
  29. K. V. Maydell, S. Brehme, N. H. Nickel, W. Fuhs, "Electronic transport in P-doped laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon," Thin Solid Films 487, 93-96 (2005).
  30. M. Ushiyama, Y. Ohji, T. Nishimoto, K. Komori, H. Murakoshi, H. Kume, S. Tachi, "Two dimensionally inhomogeneous structure at gate electrode/gate insulator interface causing Fowler–Nordheim current deviation innonvolatile memory," IEEE Int. Rel. Phys. Symp. (1991) pp. 331-336.
  31. G. V. Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour grown silicon nanocrystals," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 719-730 (2002).
  32. T. Sugino, C. Kimura, T. Yamamoto, "Electron field emission from boron–nitride nanofilms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3602-3604 (2002).
  33. Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, S. C. Chen, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, "InGaN-GaN MQW LEDs with Si treatment," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 1620-1622 (2005).
  34. C.-L. Lee, S.-C. Lee, W.-I. Lee, "Nonlithographic random masking and regrowth of GaN microhillocks to improve light-emitting diode efficiency," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2 45, L4-L7 (2006).

2007 (2)

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, H. C. Kuo, H.-S. Lin, C.-C. Kao, "Anomalous microphotoluminescence of high-aspect-ratio Si nanopillars formatted by dry-etching Si substrate with self-aggregated Ni nanodot mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 143102.

G.-R. Lin, C.-K. Lin, C.-J. Lin, "Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in a nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids," Opt. Express 15, 2555-2563 (2007).

2006 (3)

G.-R. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, Y.-L. Chueh, "Synthesis of Si nano-pyramids at SiOx/Si interface for enhancing electroluminescence of Si-rich SiOx based MOS diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) 093126.

C.-L. Lee, S.-C. Lee, W.-I. Lee, "Nonlithographic random masking and regrowth of GaN microhillocks to improve light-emitting diode efficiency," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2 45, L4-L7 (2006).

G.-R. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, H.-S. Lin, C.-C. Kao, "Rapid self-assembly of Ni nanodots on Si substrate covered by a less-adhesive and heat-accumulated ${\hbox {SiO}}_{2}$ layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) 073108.

2005 (5)

J. S. Lee, S. K. Kim, G. Y. Yeom, J. B. Yoo, C. Y. Park, "Fabrication of Si nano-pillar array through Ni nano-dot mask using inductively coupled plasma," Thin Solid Films 475, 41-44 (2005).

C.-J. Lin, G.-R. Lin, "Defect-enhanced visible electroluminescence of multi-energv silicon-implanted silicon dioxide film," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 441-447 (2005).

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, Y.-L. Chueh, "Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO$_{2}$," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094306-094306 (2005).

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, S. C. Chen, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, "InGaN-GaN MQW LEDs with Si treatment," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 1620-1622 (2005).

K. V. Maydell, S. Brehme, N. H. Nickel, W. Fuhs, "Electronic transport in P-doped laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon," Thin Solid Films 487, 93-96 (2005).

2004 (2)

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, Mater. Sci. Eng., B B113, 125-129 (2004).

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).

2002 (3)

G. Franzo, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. D. Stefano, P. G. Fallica, F. Priolo, "Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures," Appl. Phys. A 74, 1-5 (2002).

G. V. Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour grown silicon nanocrystals," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 719-730 (2002).

T. Sugino, C. Kimura, T. Yamamoto, "Electron field emission from boron–nitride nanofilms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3602-3604 (2002).

2000 (3)

D. Crouse, A. Y.-H. Lo, E. Millar, M. Crouse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 49-51 (2000).

L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, "Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals," Nature 408, 440-444 (2000).

F. Iacona, G. Franzo, C. Spinella, "Correlation between luminescence and structural properties of Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1295-1303 (2000).

1999 (1)

Y. Homma, P. Finnie, T. Ogino, H. Noda, T. Urisu, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3083-3087 (1999).

1997 (1)

H. Z. Song, X. M. Bao, N. S. Li, J. Y. Zhang, "Relation between electroluminescence and photoluminescence of ${\hbox {Si}}^{+}$-implanted ${\hbox {SiO}}_{2}$," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4028-4032 (1997).

1995 (2)

G. G. Qin, A. P. Li, B. R. Zhang, B. C. Li, "Visible electroluminescence from semitransparent Au film/extra thin Si-rich silicon oxide film/p-Si structure," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2006-2009 (1995).

G. Nassiopoulos, S. Grigoropoulous, D. Papadimitriou, E. Gogolides, "Visible luminescence from one- and two-dimensional silicon structures produced by conventional lithographic and reactive ion etching techniques," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1114-1116 (1995).

1994 (1)

K. F. Schuegraf, C. M. Hu, ""Reliability of thin SiO$_{2}$," Semicond. Sci. Technol 9, 989-1004 (1994).

1993 (4)

S. S. Gong, M. E. Burnham, N. D. Theodore, D. K. Schroder, "Evaluation of ${\hbox {Q}}_{\rm bd}$ for electrons tunneling from the ${\hbox {Si/SiO}}_{2}$ interface compared to electron tunneling from the poly-${\hbox {Si/SiO}}_{2}$ interface," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40, 1251-1257 (1993).

C. H. Lin, S. C. Lee, Y. F. Chen, "Strong room-temperature photoluminescence of hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide and its correlation to porous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 902-904 (1993).

L. T. Canham, "Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046-1048 (1993).

P. B. Fischer, K. Dai, E. Chen, S. Y. Chou, "10 nm Si pillars fabricated using electron-beam lithography, reactive ion etching, and HF etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2524-2527 (1993).

1991 (1)

Q. Y. Ye, R. Tsu, E. H. Nicollian, "Resonant tunneling via microcrystalline-silicon quantum confinement," Phys. Rev. B 44, 1806-1811 (1991).

1968 (1)

J. R. Yeargan, H. L. Taylor, "The Poole–Frenkel effect with compensation present," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5600-5604 (1968).

1938 (1)

J. Frenkel, "On the theory of electric breakdown of dielectric and electronic semiconductors," Phys. Rev. 54, 657 (1938).

1928 (1)

R. H. Fowler, L. W. Nordheim, "Electron emission in intense electric fields," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 119, 173-181 (1928).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G.-R. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, Y.-L. Chueh, "Synthesis of Si nano-pyramids at SiOx/Si interface for enhancing electroluminescence of Si-rich SiOx based MOS diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) 093126.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. T. Canham, "Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046-1048 (1993).

G.-R. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, H.-S. Lin, C.-C. Kao, "Rapid self-assembly of Ni nanodots on Si substrate covered by a less-adhesive and heat-accumulated ${\hbox {SiO}}_{2}$ layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) 073108.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

G. Franzo, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. D. Stefano, P. G. Fallica, F. Priolo, "Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures," Appl. Phys. A 74, 1-5 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. H. Lin, S. C. Lee, Y. F. Chen, "Strong room-temperature photoluminescence of hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide and its correlation to porous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 902-904 (1993).

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, H. C. Kuo, H.-S. Lin, C.-C. Kao, "Anomalous microphotoluminescence of high-aspect-ratio Si nanopillars formatted by dry-etching Si substrate with self-aggregated Ni nanodot mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 143102.

D. Crouse, A. Y.-H. Lo, E. Millar, M. Crouse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 49-51 (2000).

G. Nassiopoulos, S. Grigoropoulous, D. Papadimitriou, E. Gogolides, "Visible luminescence from one- and two-dimensional silicon structures produced by conventional lithographic and reactive ion etching techniques," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1114-1116 (1995).

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).

T. Sugino, C. Kimura, T. Yamamoto, "Electron field emission from boron–nitride nanofilms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3602-3604 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

S. S. Gong, M. E. Burnham, N. D. Theodore, D. K. Schroder, "Evaluation of ${\hbox {Q}}_{\rm bd}$ for electrons tunneling from the ${\hbox {Si/SiO}}_{2}$ interface compared to electron tunneling from the poly-${\hbox {Si/SiO}}_{2}$ interface," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40, 1251-1257 (1993).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-J. Lin, G.-R. Lin, "Defect-enhanced visible electroluminescence of multi-energv silicon-implanted silicon dioxide film," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 441-447 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, S. C. Chen, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, "InGaN-GaN MQW LEDs with Si treatment," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 1620-1622 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Z. Song, X. M. Bao, N. S. Li, J. Y. Zhang, "Relation between electroluminescence and photoluminescence of ${\hbox {Si}}^{+}$-implanted ${\hbox {SiO}}_{2}$," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4028-4032 (1997).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. V. Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour grown silicon nanocrystals," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 719-730 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

J. R. Yeargan, H. L. Taylor, "The Poole–Frenkel effect with compensation present," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5600-5604 (1968).

Y. Homma, P. Finnie, T. Ogino, H. Noda, T. Urisu, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3083-3087 (1999).

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, Y.-L. Chueh, "Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO$_{2}$," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094306-094306 (2005).

F. Iacona, G. Franzo, C. Spinella, "Correlation between luminescence and structural properties of Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1295-1303 (2000).

G. G. Qin, A. P. Li, B. R. Zhang, B. C. Li, "Visible electroluminescence from semitransparent Au film/extra thin Si-rich silicon oxide film/p-Si structure," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2006-2009 (1995).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

P. B. Fischer, K. Dai, E. Chen, S. Y. Chou, "10 nm Si pillars fabricated using electron-beam lithography, reactive ion etching, and HF etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2524-2527 (1993).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2 (1)

C.-L. Lee, S.-C. Lee, W.-I. Lee, "Nonlithographic random masking and regrowth of GaN microhillocks to improve light-emitting diode efficiency," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2 45, L4-L7 (2006).

Mater. Sci. Eng., B (1)

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, Mater. Sci. Eng., B B113, 125-129 (2004).

Nature (1)

L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, "Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals," Nature 408, 440-444 (2000).

Opt. Express (1)

G.-R. Lin, C.-K. Lin, C.-J. Lin, "Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in a nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids," Opt. Express 15, 2555-2563 (2007).

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. Frenkel, "On the theory of electric breakdown of dielectric and electronic semiconductors," Phys. Rev. 54, 657 (1938).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Q. Y. Ye, R. Tsu, E. H. Nicollian, "Resonant tunneling via microcrystalline-silicon quantum confinement," Phys. Rev. B 44, 1806-1811 (1991).

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

R. H. Fowler, L. W. Nordheim, "Electron emission in intense electric fields," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 119, 173-181 (1928).

Semicond. Sci. Technol (1)

K. F. Schuegraf, C. M. Hu, ""Reliability of thin SiO$_{2}$," Semicond. Sci. Technol 9, 989-1004 (1994).

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. S. Lee, S. K. Kim, G. Y. Yeom, J. B. Yoo, C. Y. Park, "Fabrication of Si nano-pillar array through Ni nano-dot mask using inductively coupled plasma," Thin Solid Films 475, 41-44 (2005).

Thin Solid Films (1)

K. V. Maydell, S. Brehme, N. H. Nickel, W. Fuhs, "Electronic transport in P-doped laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon," Thin Solid Films 487, 93-96 (2005).

Other (3)

M. Ushiyama, Y. Ohji, T. Nishimoto, K. Komori, H. Murakoshi, H. Kume, S. Tachi, "Two dimensionally inhomogeneous structure at gate electrode/gate insulator interface causing Fowler–Nordheim current deviation innonvolatile memory," IEEE Int. Rel. Phys. Symp. (1991) pp. 331-336.

D. K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization (Wiley, 1998) pp. 408.

E. H. Rhoderick, R. H. Williams, Metal-Semiconductor Contacts (Clarendon, 1988).

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