Abstract

We investigate the mechanism responding for performance enhancement of gallium nitride (GaN)-based light-emitting diode (LED) grown on chemical wet-etching-patterned sapphire substrate (CWE-PSS) with V-Shaped pit features on the top surface. According to temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurement and the measured external quantum efficiency, the structure can simultaneously enhance both internal quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency. Comparing to devices grown on planar sapphire substrate, the threading dislocation defects of LED grown on CWE-PSS are reduced from 1.28$\,\times {\hbox{10}} ^{9} /{\hbox {cm}}^{2}$ to 3.62$\,\times {\hbox{10}} ^{8} /{\hbox {cm}}^{2}$, leading to a 12.5% enhancement in internal quantum efficiency. In terms of the theoretical computing of radiation patterns, the V-Shaped pits roughening surface can be thought of as a strong diffuser with paraboloidal autocorrelation function, increasing the escape probability of trapped photons and achieving a 20% enhancement in light extraction efficiency. Moreover, according to the measurement of optical diffraction power, CWE-PSS demonstrated superior guided light extraction efficiency than that of planar sapphire substrate, thus an extra 7.8% enhancement in light extraction efficiency was obtained. Therefore, comparing to the conventional LED, an overall 45% enhancement in integrated output power was achieved.

© 2008 IEEE

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2007 (1)

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, "Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131107 (2007).

2006 (3)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, Y. Xi, J. M. Shah, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, "Light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diodes using diffuse omnidirectional reflectors," J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, G105-G107 (2006).

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "High light-extraction GaN-based LEDs with double diffuse surfaces," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1196-1201 (2006).

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1152-1154 (2006).

2005 (3)

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, J. S. Fang, "Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 288-290 (2005).

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, Y. L. Yang, S. N. Yen, Y. T. Chu, Y. J. Shen, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, "Improvement in light-output efficiency of near-ultraviolet InGaN–GaN LEDs fabricated on stripe patterned sapphire substrates," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 122, 184-187 (2005).

Z. H. Feng, K. M. Lau, "Enhanced luminescence from GaN-based blue LEDs grown on grooved sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1812-1814 (2005).

2004 (3)

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, "Nitride-based LEDs with 800/spl deg/C grown p-AlInGaN-GaN double-cap layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1447-1449 (2004).

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, K. M. Lau, "GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 327-332 (2004).

2003 (3)

D. I. Florescu, S. M. Ting, J. C. Ramer, D. S. Lee, V. N. Merai, A. Parkeh, D. Lu, E. A. Armour, L. Chernyak, "Investigation of V-defects and embedded inclusions in InGan/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 33-35 (2003).

S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, D. H. Fan, "MOCVD growth of InGan/GaN blue light emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates," Phys. Stat. Sol. (C) 7, 2253-2256 (2003).

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, H. Kudo, "Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient ${\hbox{In}}_{x}{\hbox{Ga}}_{1-x}{\hbox{N}}$-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4906-4908 (2003).

2001 (2)

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, T. Tahuchi, "High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L583-L585 (2001).

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, K. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, J. H. Song, P. W. Yu, "Effect of buffer layers and stacking faults on the reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN overlayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2617-2621 (2001).

2000 (1)

P. Visconti, K. M. Jones, M. A. Reshchikov, R. Cingolani, H. Morkoç, R. J. Molnar, "Dislocation density in GaN determined by photoelectrochemical and hot-wet etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3532-3524 (2000).

1998 (3)

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, S. Y. Wang, "Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 710-712 (1998).

I.-H. Kim, H.-S. Park, Y.-J. Park, T. Kim, "Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells and bulk InGaN films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1634-1636 (1998).

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 211-213 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. Broditsky, E. Yablonovitch, "Light-emitting-diode extraction efficiency," Proc. SPIE 3002, 119-122 (1997).

1988 (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, H. Kudo, "Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient ${\hbox{In}}_{x}{\hbox{Ga}}_{1-x}{\hbox{N}}$-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4906-4908 (2003).

P. Visconti, K. M. Jones, M. A. Reshchikov, R. Cingolani, H. Morkoç, R. J. Molnar, "Dislocation density in GaN determined by photoelectrochemical and hot-wet etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3532-3524 (2000).

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 211-213 (1998).

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, "Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131107 (2007).

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, S. Y. Wang, "Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 710-712 (1998).

I.-H. Kim, H.-S. Park, Y.-J. Park, T. Kim, "Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells and bulk InGaN films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1634-1636 (1998).

D. I. Florescu, S. M. Ting, J. C. Ramer, D. S. Lee, V. N. Merai, A. Parkeh, D. Lu, E. A. Armour, L. Chernyak, "Investigation of V-defects and embedded inclusions in InGan/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 33-35 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Z. H. Feng, K. M. Lau, "Enhanced luminescence from GaN-based blue LEDs grown on grooved sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1812-1814 (2005).

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, J. S. Fang, "Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 288-290 (2005).

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1152-1154 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "High light-extraction GaN-based LEDs with double diffuse surfaces," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1196-1201 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, "Nitride-based LEDs with 800/spl deg/C grown p-AlInGaN-GaN double-cap layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1447-1449 (2004).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, Y. Xi, J. M. Shah, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, "Light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diodes using diffuse omnidirectional reflectors," J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, G105-G107 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, K. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, J. H. Song, P. W. Yu, "Effect of buffer layers and stacking faults on the reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN overlayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2617-2621 (2001).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, K. M. Lau, "GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 327-332 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, T. Tahuchi, "High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L583-L585 (2001).

Mater. Sci. Eng., B (1)

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, Y. L. Yang, S. N. Yen, Y. T. Chu, Y. J. Shen, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, "Improvement in light-output efficiency of near-ultraviolet InGaN–GaN LEDs fabricated on stripe patterned sapphire substrates," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 122, 184-187 (2005).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (C) (1)

S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, D. H. Fan, "MOCVD growth of InGan/GaN blue light emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates," Phys. Stat. Sol. (C) 7, 2253-2256 (2003).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Broditsky, E. Yablonovitch, "Light-emitting-diode extraction efficiency," Proc. SPIE 3002, 119-122 (1997).

Other (3)

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story (Springer, 2000).

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics pp. 48.

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