Abstract

We propose an inverse Wentzel–Kramer–Brillouin (WKB) method for the construction of the refractive-index profiles of buried graded-index planar waveguides from the measured effective indexes of the guided modes. Our method involves experimental determination of the location of the peak index in the buried profile, measurement of the effective indexes in air, and an index-matching liquid, and application of a searching algorithm to find the best-fit profile through inverting the WKB equations. We present numerical examples and experimental results to demonstrate the performance of the method.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, "Ion-exchange glass waveguides: A review," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 984-1000 (1988).
  2. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
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  15. F. Xiang, G. L. Yip, "A modified WKB method for the improved phase shift at a turning point," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 443-452 (1994).
  16. Q. Liu, Z. Q. Cao, Q. S. Shen, X. M. Dou, Y. L. Chen, "Analysis of planar waveguides with index discontinuity of index slope discontinuity," Opt. Quant. Electron. 33, 675-683 (2001).
  17. F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, "Towards a more accurate refractive index profile of ion-exchanged waveguides," Thin Solid Films 460, 206-210 (2004).

2007 (1)

K. S. Chiang, S. Y. Cheng, Q. Liu, "Characterization of ultrathin dielectric films with the prism-coupler method," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1206-1212 (2007).

2005 (1)

K. S. Chiang, C. L. Wong, "Refractive-index profiling of single-mode graded-index optical planar waveguides by the inverse Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin method with improved accuracy," Opt. Eng. 44, 054601(1)-054601(4) (2005).

2004 (1)

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, "Towards a more accurate refractive index profile of ion-exchanged waveguides," Thin Solid Films 460, 206-210 (2004).

2003 (1)

R. Rogozinski, "Determination of refractive index profiles of planar buried waveguides on the basis of a set of modal propagation constants," Opt. Commun. 219, 199-214 (2003).

2001 (1)

Q. Liu, Z. Q. Cao, Q. S. Shen, X. M. Dou, Y. L. Chen, "Analysis of planar waveguides with index discontinuity of index slope discontinuity," Opt. Quant. Electron. 33, 675-683 (2001).

2000 (2)

K. S. Chiang, C. L. Wong, S. Y. Cheng, H. P. Chan, "Refractive-index profiling of graded-index planar waveguides from effective indexes measured with different external refractive indexes," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1412-1417 (2000).

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).

1996 (1)

K. S. Chiang, C. L. Wong, H. P. Chan, Y. T. Chow, "Refractive-index profiling of graded-index planar waveguides from effective indexes measured for both mode types and at different wavelengths," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 827-832 (1996).

1995 (1)

G. S. Agapiou, C. M. Verber, "Fabrication and characterization of double-diffused waveguides," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 27, 43-48 (1995).

1994 (1)

F. Xiang, G. L. Yip, "A modified WKB method for the improved phase shift at a turning point," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 443-452 (1994).

1990 (1)

S. S. Geyorgyan, "Single-step buried waveguides in glass by field-assisted copper ion-exchange," Electron. Lett. 26, 38-39 (1990).

1988 (2)

R. V. Ramaswamy, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, "Process optimization of buried Ag+-Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides: Theory and experiment," Appl. Opt. 27, 1814 (1988).

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, "Ion-exchange glass waveguides: A review," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 984-1000 (1988).

1985 (1)

K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 385-391 (1985).

1980 (1)

1976 (1)

1970 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, "Theory of prism-film coupler and thin film light guides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 1325-1337 (1970).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. S. Geyorgyan, "Single-step buried waveguides in glass by field-assisted copper ion-exchange," Electron. Lett. 26, 38-39 (1990).

IEEE Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

K. S. Chiang, S. Y. Cheng, Q. Liu, "Characterization of ultrathin dielectric films with the prism-coupler method," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1206-1212 (2007).

K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 385-391 (1985).

K. S. Chiang, C. L. Wong, H. P. Chan, Y. T. Chow, "Refractive-index profiling of graded-index planar waveguides from effective indexes measured for both mode types and at different wavelengths," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 827-832 (1996).

K. S. Chiang, C. L. Wong, S. Y. Cheng, H. P. Chan, "Refractive-index profiling of graded-index planar waveguides from effective indexes measured with different external refractive indexes," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1412-1417 (2000).

F. Xiang, G. L. Yip, "A modified WKB method for the improved phase shift at a turning point," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 443-452 (1994).

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, "Ion-exchange glass waveguides: A review," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 984-1000 (1988).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, "Theory of prism-film coupler and thin film light guides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 1325-1337 (1970).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Rogozinski, "Determination of refractive index profiles of planar buried waveguides on the basis of a set of modal propagation constants," Opt. Commun. 219, 199-214 (2003).

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. S. Chiang, C. L. Wong, "Refractive-index profiling of single-mode graded-index optical planar waveguides by the inverse Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin method with improved accuracy," Opt. Eng. 44, 054601(1)-054601(4) (2005).

Opt. Quant. Electron. (1)

Q. Liu, Z. Q. Cao, Q. S. Shen, X. M. Dou, Y. L. Chen, "Analysis of planar waveguides with index discontinuity of index slope discontinuity," Opt. Quant. Electron. 33, 675-683 (2001).

Opt. Quantum. Electron. (1)

G. S. Agapiou, C. M. Verber, "Fabrication and characterization of double-diffused waveguides," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 27, 43-48 (1995).

Thin Solid Films (1)

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, "Towards a more accurate refractive index profile of ion-exchanged waveguides," Thin Solid Films 460, 206-210 (2004).

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