Abstract

We reported on, to our knowledge the first time, the channel waveguide formation in $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$ crystal by the implantation of protons with a special designed photoresist mask. The 2-D refractive index profile was constructed according to the measured dark-mode spectroscopy (for longitudinally planar configuration) as well as the shape of the channel waveguide cross section. Based on this index distribution, the modal profile was calculated through a numerical simulation, which showed reasonable agreement with the near-field light intensity distribution of the guided mode that was obtained by an end-coupling method. After annealing at 200 $^{\circ}\hbox {C}$ for 30 min in air, propagation loss of the channel waveguides was determined to be as low as $\sim$2.9 dB/cm at wavelength of 632.8 nm.

© 2008 IEEE

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