Abstract

We reported on, to our knowledge the first time, the channel waveguide formation in $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$ crystal by the implantation of protons with a special designed photoresist mask. The 2-D refractive index profile was constructed according to the measured dark-mode spectroscopy (for longitudinally planar configuration) as well as the shape of the channel waveguide cross section. Based on this index distribution, the modal profile was calculated through a numerical simulation, which showed reasonable agreement with the near-field light intensity distribution of the guided mode that was obtained by an end-coupling method. After annealing at 200 $^{\circ}\hbox {C}$ for 30 min in air, propagation loss of the channel waveguides was determined to be as low as $\sim$2.9 dB/cm at wavelength of 632.8 nm.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. Z. Zalevsky, Y. Kapellner, I. Eyal, N. Cohen, "Self Q-switching effect in a $\hbox {Nd:YVO}_{4}/\hbox {KTP}$ lasing unit," Opt. Eng. 459, 070506 1-070506 3 (2006).
  2. F. C. Zumsteg, J. D. Bierlein, T. Gier, "${\rm K}_{\rm x}{\rm Rb}_{1-{\rm x}}{\rm TiOPO}_{4}$: A new nonlinear optical material," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4980-4985 (1976).
  3. J. D. Bierlein, C. B. Arweiler, "Electro-optic and dielectric properties of $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917-919 (1986).
  4. G. Lifante, Integrated Photonics: Fundamentals (Wiley, 2002).
  5. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).
  6. F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, "Development of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
  7. I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, V. M. Passaro, "A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides," J. Phys. D 31, 1667-1672 (1998).
  8. F. Schrempel, T. Höche, J.-P. Ruske, U. Grusemann, W. Wesch, "Depth dependence of radiation damage in $\hbox {Li}^{+}$-implanted $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B. 191, 202-207 (2002).
  9. K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, X. M. Wang, "Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$ waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions," J. Mater. Res. 16, 276-279 (2001).
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  12. K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, J. H. Zhang, J. T. Liu, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, "Low-energy proton irradiated waveguides in $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$," Phys. Status Solidi (a) 184, 453-457 (2001).
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  22. P. J. Chandler, F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-143 (1986).
  23. R. Regener, W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse $\hbox {Ti:LiNbO}_{3}$ optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1984).
  24. F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, "Optical channel waveguides in $\hbox {Nd:YVO}_{4}$ crystal produced by $\hbox {O}^{+}$ ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
  25. D. Yevick, W. Bardyszewski, "Correspondence of variational finite-difference (relaxation) and imaginary-distance propagation methods for modal analysis," Opt. Lett. 17, 329-330.
  26. D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, Y. Silberberg, "Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature 424, 817-823 (2003).
  27. D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, "Observation of mutually trapped multiband optical breathers in waveguide arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, (2003).
  28. F. Chen, M. Stepić, C. E. Rüter, D. Runde, D. Kip, V. Shandarov, O. Manela, M. Segev, "Discrete diffraction and spatial gap solitons in photovoltaic $\hbox {LiNbO}_{3}$ waveguide arrays," Opt. Express 13, 4314-4324 (2005).

2008

V. Petit, P. Moretti, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, "Yb3+:CaF2 by H+ implantation for laser applications," J. Alloys Compounds 451, 68-70 (2008) doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2007.04.120.

2007

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, "Development of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).

F. Schrempel, C. Beeker, W. Wesch, "Waveguide barriers with adjustable refractive index produced in KTP by irradiation with He- and Li-ions," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 257, 484-487 (2007).

E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, R. Trejo-Luna, "Optical channel waveguides by proton and carbon implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 15, 8513-8520 (2007).

2006

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, "Optical channel waveguides in $\hbox {Nd:YVO}_{4}$ crystal produced by $\hbox {O}^{+}$ ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, L. Laversenne, P. Moretti, C. N. Borca, M. Pollnau, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of Ti:sapphire buried channel-waveguide lasers fabricated via proton implantation," Opt. Lett. 31, 3450-3452 (2006).

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Kapellner, I. Eyal, N. Cohen, "Self Q-switching effect in a $\hbox {Nd:YVO}_{4}/\hbox {KTP}$ lasing unit," Opt. Eng. 459, 070506 1-070506 3 (2006).

2005

2004

F. Schrempel, T. Opfermann, J.-P. Ruske, U. Grusemann, W. Wesch, "Properties of buried waveguides produced by He-irradiation in KTP and Rb:KTP," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 209-216 (2004).

2003

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, J. Samecki, "Luminescence of $\hbox {Nd}^{3+}$ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).

D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, Y. Silberberg, "Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature 424, 817-823 (2003).

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, "Observation of mutually trapped multiband optical breathers in waveguide arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, (2003).

2002

F. Schrempel, T. Höche, J.-P. Ruske, U. Grusemann, W. Wesch, "Depth dependence of radiation damage in $\hbox {Li}^{+}$-implanted $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B. 191, 202-207 (2002).

2001

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, X. M. Wang, "Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$ waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions," J. Mater. Res. 16, 276-279 (2001).

P. Binder, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, "Formation of optical waveguides in potassium titanyl phosphate by double implantation of protons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2558-2560 (2001).

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, J. H. Zhang, J. T. Liu, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, "Low-energy proton irradiated waveguides in $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$," Phys. Status Solidi (a) 184, 453-457 (2001).

1998

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, Y. G. Liu, "Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$ by pulsed laser deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1020-1022 (1998).

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, V. M. Passaro, "A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides," J. Phys. D 31, 1667-1672 (1998).

1996

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, S. Bauer, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, "Blue-light second harmonic generation in ion-implanted $\hbox {KNbO}_{3}$ channel waveguides of new design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4133-4135 (1996).

1993

W. P. Risk, S. D. Lau, R. Fontana, L. Lane, C. Nadler, "Type-II second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency mixing in uniform $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$ channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1301-1303 (1993).

F. Laurel, "Stable blue second harmonic generation in a KTP waveguide with a diode laser in an external cavity," Electron. Lett. 29, 1629-1630 (1993).

1986

P. J. Chandler, F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-143 (1986).

J. D. Bierlein, C. B. Arweiler, "Electro-optic and dielectric properties of $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917-919 (1986).

1984

R. Regener, W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse $\hbox {Ti:LiNbO}_{3}$ optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1984).

1976

F. C. Zumsteg, J. D. Bierlein, T. Gier, "${\rm K}_{\rm x}{\rm Rb}_{1-{\rm x}}{\rm TiOPO}_{4}$: A new nonlinear optical material," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4980-4985 (1976).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Binder, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, "Formation of optical waveguides in potassium titanyl phosphate by double implantation of protons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2558-2560 (2001).

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, S. Bauer, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, "Blue-light second harmonic generation in ion-implanted $\hbox {KNbO}_{3}$ channel waveguides of new design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4133-4135 (1996).

Appl. Phys. B

R. Regener, W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse $\hbox {Ti:LiNbO}_{3}$ optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1984).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, "Optical channel waveguides in $\hbox {Nd:YVO}_{4}$ crystal produced by $\hbox {O}^{+}$ ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, Y. G. Liu, "Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$ by pulsed laser deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1020-1022 (1998).

W. P. Risk, S. D. Lau, R. Fontana, L. Lane, C. Nadler, "Type-II second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency mixing in uniform $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$ channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1301-1303 (1993).

J. D. Bierlein, C. B. Arweiler, "Electro-optic and dielectric properties of $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917-919 (1986).

Electron. Lett.

F. Laurel, "Stable blue second harmonic generation in a KTP waveguide with a diode laser in an external cavity," Electron. Lett. 29, 1629-1630 (1993).

J. Alloys Compounds

V. Petit, P. Moretti, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, "Yb3+:CaF2 by H+ implantation for laser applications," J. Alloys Compounds 451, 68-70 (2008) doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2007.04.120.

J. Mater. Res.

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, X. M. Wang, "Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$ waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions," J. Mater. Res. 16, 276-279 (2001).

J. Appl. Phys.

F. C. Zumsteg, J. D. Bierlein, T. Gier, "${\rm K}_{\rm x}{\rm Rb}_{1-{\rm x}}{\rm TiOPO}_{4}$: A new nonlinear optical material," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4980-4985 (1976).

J. Phys. D

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, V. M. Passaro, "A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides," J. Phys. D 31, 1667-1672 (1998).

Nature

D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, Y. Silberberg, "Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature 424, 817-823 (2003).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

F. Schrempel, C. Beeker, W. Wesch, "Waveguide barriers with adjustable refractive index produced in KTP by irradiation with He- and Li-ions," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 257, 484-487 (2007).

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B.

F. Schrempel, T. Höche, J.-P. Ruske, U. Grusemann, W. Wesch, "Depth dependence of radiation damage in $\hbox {Li}^{+}$-implanted $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B. 191, 202-207 (2002).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

F. Schrempel, T. Opfermann, J.-P. Ruske, U. Grusemann, W. Wesch, "Properties of buried waveguides produced by He-irradiation in KTP and Rb:KTP," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 209-216 (2004).

Opt. Eng.

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Kapellner, I. Eyal, N. Cohen, "Self Q-switching effect in a $\hbox {Nd:YVO}_{4}/\hbox {KTP}$ lasing unit," Opt. Eng. 459, 070506 1-070506 3 (2006).

Opt. Express

E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, R. Trejo-Luna, "Optical channel waveguides by proton and carbon implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 15, 8513-8520 (2007).

Opt. Acta

P. J. Chandler, F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-143 (1986).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, "Development of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, J. Samecki, "Luminescence of $\hbox {Nd}^{3+}$ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, "Observation of mutually trapped multiband optical breathers in waveguide arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, (2003).

Phys. Status Solidi (a)

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, J. H. Zhang, J. T. Liu, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, "Low-energy proton irradiated waveguides in $\hbox {KTiOPO}_{4}$," Phys. Status Solidi (a) 184, 453-457 (2001).

Other

G. Lifante, Integrated Photonics: Fundamentals (Wiley, 2002).

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).

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