Abstract

We developed an electrooptic (EO) sensing system using an external optical intensity modulator for radio frequency (RF) electric near-field measurements. This low-noise, high-frequency resolution system is based on the photonic heterodyning technique in which a RF near-field signal is mixed with modulated light by an EO crystal and downconverted to the difference frequency. Because the optical modulator has a bandwidth extending from DC to several gigahertz, the frequency resolution of this system is determined by that of the RF synthesizer it uses. The intensity noise of the modulated light is quite low, and the noise level of the EO signal can be reduced to almost the shot-noise level by using a balanced detection scheme.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, "Picosecond optical sampling of GaAs integrated circuits," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 24, 198-220 (1988).
  2. T. Nagatsuma, "Measurement of high-speed devices and integrated circuits using electro-optic sampling technique," IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C, 55-63 (1993).
  3. Y. Matsuo, T. Kawanishi, S. Oikawa, K. Higuma, M. Izutsu, "Electro-optic sampling measurement of the electric field distribution on a resonant electrode for a band-operation optical modulator," IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 100-103 (2003).
  4. Z. Jiang, X. -C. Zhang, "Terahertz imaging via electrooptic effect," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2644-2650 (1999).
  5. S. Wakana, T. Ohara, M. Abe, E. Yamazaki, M. Kishi, M. Tsuchiya, "Fiber-edge electrooptic/magnetooptic probe for spectral-domain analysis of electromagnetic field," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48, 2611-2616 (2000).
  6. S. Loualiche, F. Clerot, "Electro-optic measurements in the frequency domain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2153-2155 (1992).
  7. W. K. Kuo, C. H. Pai, S. L. Huang, "An electro-optic probing system for near electric field measurement using heterodyne method," Proc. Tech Dig. 4th Pacific Rim Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (2001) pp. I-474-475.
  8. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Photonics (Oxford, 2007).
  9. T. Kawanishi, M. Sasaki, S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, M. Izutsu, "Reciprocating optical modulation for harmonic generation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 854-856 (2001).
  10. S. Wakana, E. Yamazaki, S. Mitani, H. Park, M. Iwanami, S. Hoshino, M. Kishi, M. Tsuchiya, "Performance evaluation of fiber-edge magnetooptic probe," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3292-3299 (2003).
  11. K. Sasagawa, M. Tsuchiya, "Modulation depth enhancement for highly sensitive electro-optic RF near-field measurement," Electron. Lett. 42, 1357-1358 (2006).
  12. K. Sasagawa, M. Tsuchiya, "Real-time monitoring system of RF near-field distribution images on the basis of 64-channel parallel electro-optic data acquisition," IEICE Electron. Expr. 2, 600-606 (2005).
  13. K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, "10,000 parallel heterodyne system for instantaneous photonics-based acquisition of near-fields images over microwave devices/circuits," Proc. Asia-Pacific Microwave Conf. Dig. (2006) pp. 1587-1590.
  14. K. Sasagawa, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, "Live electro-optic imaging of microwave near-fields via ultra-parallel photonic heterodyne," IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. HonoluluHI (2007).
  15. K. Sasagawa, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, "Live electro-optic imaging system based on ultra-parallel photonic heterodyne for microwave near-fields," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 2782-2791 (2007).

2007 (1)

K. Sasagawa, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, "Live electro-optic imaging system based on ultra-parallel photonic heterodyne for microwave near-fields," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 2782-2791 (2007).

2006 (1)

K. Sasagawa, M. Tsuchiya, "Modulation depth enhancement for highly sensitive electro-optic RF near-field measurement," Electron. Lett. 42, 1357-1358 (2006).

2005 (1)

K. Sasagawa, M. Tsuchiya, "Real-time monitoring system of RF near-field distribution images on the basis of 64-channel parallel electro-optic data acquisition," IEICE Electron. Expr. 2, 600-606 (2005).

2003 (2)

Y. Matsuo, T. Kawanishi, S. Oikawa, K. Higuma, M. Izutsu, "Electro-optic sampling measurement of the electric field distribution on a resonant electrode for a band-operation optical modulator," IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 100-103 (2003).

S. Wakana, E. Yamazaki, S. Mitani, H. Park, M. Iwanami, S. Hoshino, M. Kishi, M. Tsuchiya, "Performance evaluation of fiber-edge magnetooptic probe," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3292-3299 (2003).

2001 (1)

T. Kawanishi, M. Sasaki, S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, M. Izutsu, "Reciprocating optical modulation for harmonic generation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 854-856 (2001).

2000 (1)

S. Wakana, T. Ohara, M. Abe, E. Yamazaki, M. Kishi, M. Tsuchiya, "Fiber-edge electrooptic/magnetooptic probe for spectral-domain analysis of electromagnetic field," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48, 2611-2616 (2000).

1999 (1)

Z. Jiang, X. -C. Zhang, "Terahertz imaging via electrooptic effect," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2644-2650 (1999).

1993 (1)

T. Nagatsuma, "Measurement of high-speed devices and integrated circuits using electro-optic sampling technique," IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C, 55-63 (1993).

1992 (1)

S. Loualiche, F. Clerot, "Electro-optic measurements in the frequency domain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2153-2155 (1992).

1988 (1)

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, "Picosecond optical sampling of GaAs integrated circuits," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 24, 198-220 (1988).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Loualiche, F. Clerot, "Electro-optic measurements in the frequency domain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2153-2155 (1992).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Sasagawa, M. Tsuchiya, "Modulation depth enhancement for highly sensitive electro-optic RF near-field measurement," Electron. Lett. 42, 1357-1358 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

K. Sasagawa, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, "Live electro-optic imaging system based on ultra-parallel photonic heterodyne for microwave near-fields," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 2782-2791 (2007).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, "Picosecond optical sampling of GaAs integrated circuits," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 24, 198-220 (1988).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Kawanishi, M. Sasaki, S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, M. Izutsu, "Reciprocating optical modulation for harmonic generation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 854-856 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

Z. Jiang, X. -C. Zhang, "Terahertz imaging via electrooptic effect," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2644-2650 (1999).

S. Wakana, T. Ohara, M. Abe, E. Yamazaki, M. Kishi, M. Tsuchiya, "Fiber-edge electrooptic/magnetooptic probe for spectral-domain analysis of electromagnetic field," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48, 2611-2616 (2000).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

T. Nagatsuma, "Measurement of high-speed devices and integrated circuits using electro-optic sampling technique," IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C, 55-63 (1993).

IEICE Electron. Expr. (1)

K. Sasagawa, M. Tsuchiya, "Real-time monitoring system of RF near-field distribution images on the basis of 64-channel parallel electro-optic data acquisition," IEICE Electron. Expr. 2, 600-606 (2005).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

Y. Matsuo, T. Kawanishi, S. Oikawa, K. Higuma, M. Izutsu, "Electro-optic sampling measurement of the electric field distribution on a resonant electrode for a band-operation optical modulator," IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 100-103 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Wakana, E. Yamazaki, S. Mitani, H. Park, M. Iwanami, S. Hoshino, M. Kishi, M. Tsuchiya, "Performance evaluation of fiber-edge magnetooptic probe," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3292-3299 (2003).

Other (4)

W. K. Kuo, C. H. Pai, S. L. Huang, "An electro-optic probing system for near electric field measurement using heterodyne method," Proc. Tech Dig. 4th Pacific Rim Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (2001) pp. I-474-475.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Photonics (Oxford, 2007).

K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, "10,000 parallel heterodyne system for instantaneous photonics-based acquisition of near-fields images over microwave devices/circuits," Proc. Asia-Pacific Microwave Conf. Dig. (2006) pp. 1587-1590.

K. Sasagawa, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, "Live electro-optic imaging of microwave near-fields via ultra-parallel photonic heterodyne," IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. HonoluluHI (2007).

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