Abstract

We investigate optical network unit (ONU) grant scheduling techniques for multichannel Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs), such as wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) EPONs. We take a scheduling theoretic approach to solving the grant scheduling problem. We introduce a two-layer structure of the scheduling problem and investigate techniques to be used at both layers. We present an extensive ONU grant scheduling simulation study that provides: 1) insight into the nature of the ONU grant scheduling problem and 2) indication of which scheduling techniques are best for certain conditions. We find that the choice of scheduling framework has typically the largest impact on average queueing delay and achievable channel utilization. An offline scheduling framework is not work conserving and consequently wastes channel resources while waiting for all ONU REPORT messages before making access decisions. An online scheduling framework, although work conserving, does not provide the best performance since scheduling decisions are made with the information contained in a single ONU REPORT. We propose a novel online just-in-time (JIT) scheduling framework that is work conserving while increasing scheduling control by allowing the channel availability to drive the scheduling process. In online JIT, multiple ONU REPORTs can be considered together when making scheduling decisions, resulting in lower average queueing delay under certain conditions and a more effective service differentiation of ONUs.

© 2008 IEEE

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  2. A. Dhaini, C. Assi, A. Shami, "Quality of Service in TDM/WDM ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs)," Proc. IEEE ISCC (2006) pp. 616-621.
  3. M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, "STARGATE: The next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 50-56 (2007).
  4. N. Frigo, P. Iannone, P. Magill, T. Darcie, M. Downs, B. Desai, U. Koren, T. Koch, C. Dragone, H. Presby, G. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).
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  6. Y. Hsueh, W. Shaw, L. Kazovsky, A. Agata, S. Yamamoto, "Success PON demonstrator: Experimental exploration of next-generation optical access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S26-S33 (2005).
  7. F. An, D. Gutierrez, K. Kim, J. Lee, L. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS-HPON: A next generation optical access architecture for smooth migration from TDM-PON to WDM-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S40-S47 (2005).
  8. Y. Hsueh, M. Rogge, S. Yamamoto, L. Kazovsky, "A highly flexible and efficient passive optical network employing dynamic wavelength allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 277-286 (2005).
  9. C. Bock, J. Prat, S. Walker, "Hybrid WDM/TDM PON using the AWG FSR and featuring centralized ligth generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3981-3988 (2005).
  10. M. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, "WDM ethernet passive optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, S18-S25 (2006).
  11. C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. Ali, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over ethernet PONs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).
  12. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, "IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 74-80 (2002).
  13. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixt, Y. Y., R. Hirth, "Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks," J. Opt. Networking 1, 280-298 (2002).
  14. M. Pinedo, Scheduling: Theory, Algorithms, and Systems (Prentice-Hall, 2002).
  15. K. Kwong, D. Harle, I. Andonovic, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for differentiated services over WDM EPONs," Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Communications Systems (2004) pp. 116-120.
  16. M. McGarry, An evolutionary wavelength division multiplexing upgrade for Ethernet passive optical networks Master's thesis Arizona State Univ.Tempe (2004).
  17. F. Clarke, S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, "Simultaneous and interleaved polling: An upstream protocol for WDM-PON," Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2006) pp. 3.
  18. A. Dhaini, C. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, "Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM EPON networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 277-286 (2007).
  19. A. Dhaini, C. Assi, A. Shami, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes in hybrid TDM/WDM passive optical networks," Proc. IEEE CCNC (2006) pp. 30-34.
  20. V. Jacobson, K. Nichols, K. Poduri, An expedited forwarding PHB (1999) http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2598.txt RFC 2598 (Proposed Standard) obsoleted by RFC 3246..
  21. J. Heinanen, F. Baker, W. Weiss, J. Wroclawski, Assured forwarding PHB group (1999) http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2597.txt RFC 2597 (Proposed Standard) updated by RFC 3260..
  22. R. Graham, "Bounds for certain multiprocessing anomalies," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 45, 1563-1581 (1966).
  23. M. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, A. Keha, "Bandwidth management for WDM EPONs," OSA J. Opt. Networking 5, 637-654 (2006).
  24. H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, J.-T. Lim, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in ethernet passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 39, 1001-1002 (2003).
  25. J. M. Joo, Y. J. Ban, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for next generation access network," Proc. OFC (2006).
  26. S. Yin, Y. Luo, N. Ansari, T. Wang, "Bandwidth allocation over EPONs: A controllability perspective," Proc. IEEE Globecom (2006).
  27. S. Yin, Y. Luo, N. Ansari, T. Wang, "Stability of predictor-based dynamic bandwidth allocation over EPONs," IEEE Commun. Lett. 11, 549-551 (2007).
  28. Csim (Mesquite Software) http://www.mesquite.com.
  29. K. Park, W. Willinger, Self-Similar Network Traffic and Performance Evaluation (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).
  30. G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (McGraw-Hill, 2005).

2007 (3)

M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, "STARGATE: The next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 50-56 (2007).

A. Dhaini, C. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, "Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM EPON networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 277-286 (2007).

S. Yin, Y. Luo, N. Ansari, T. Wang, "Stability of predictor-based dynamic bandwidth allocation over EPONs," IEEE Commun. Lett. 11, 549-551 (2007).

2006 (2)

M. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, A. Keha, "Bandwidth management for WDM EPONs," OSA J. Opt. Networking 5, 637-654 (2006).

M. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, "WDM ethernet passive optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, S18-S25 (2006).

2005 (4)

Y. Hsueh, W. Shaw, L. Kazovsky, A. Agata, S. Yamamoto, "Success PON demonstrator: Experimental exploration of next-generation optical access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S26-S33 (2005).

F. An, D. Gutierrez, K. Kim, J. Lee, L. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS-HPON: A next generation optical access architecture for smooth migration from TDM-PON to WDM-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S40-S47 (2005).

Y. Hsueh, M. Rogge, S. Yamamoto, L. Kazovsky, "A highly flexible and efficient passive optical network employing dynamic wavelength allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 277-286 (2005).

C. Bock, J. Prat, S. Walker, "Hybrid WDM/TDM PON using the AWG FSR and featuring centralized ligth generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3981-3988 (2005).

2004 (1)

F. An, K. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).

2003 (2)

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. Ali, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over ethernet PONs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, J.-T. Lim, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in ethernet passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 39, 1001-1002 (2003).

2002 (2)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, "IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 74-80 (2002).

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixt, Y. Y., R. Hirth, "Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks," J. Opt. Networking 1, 280-298 (2002).

1994 (1)

N. Frigo, P. Iannone, P. Magill, T. Darcie, M. Downs, B. Desai, U. Koren, T. Koch, C. Dragone, H. Presby, G. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).

1983 (1)

M. Marsan, D. Roffinella, "Multichannel local area network protocols," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 1, 885-897 (1983).

1966 (1)

R. Graham, "Bounds for certain multiprocessing anomalies," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 45, 1563-1581 (1966).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

R. Graham, "Bounds for certain multiprocessing anomalies," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 45, 1563-1581 (1966).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, J.-T. Lim, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in ethernet passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 39, 1001-1002 (2003).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Y. Hsueh, W. Shaw, L. Kazovsky, A. Agata, S. Yamamoto, "Success PON demonstrator: Experimental exploration of next-generation optical access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S26-S33 (2005).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

M. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, "WDM ethernet passive optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, S18-S25 (2006).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

S. Yin, Y. Luo, N. Ansari, T. Wang, "Stability of predictor-based dynamic bandwidth allocation over EPONs," IEEE Commun. Lett. 11, 549-551 (2007).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

F. An, D. Gutierrez, K. Kim, J. Lee, L. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS-HPON: A next generation optical access architecture for smooth migration from TDM-PON to WDM-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S40-S47 (2005).

M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, "STARGATE: The next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 50-56 (2007).

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, "IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 74-80 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

M. Marsan, D. Roffinella, "Multichannel local area network protocols," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 1, 885-897 (1983).

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. Ali, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over ethernet PONs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Frigo, P. Iannone, P. Magill, T. Darcie, M. Downs, B. Desai, U. Koren, T. Koch, C. Dragone, H. Presby, G. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Dhaini, C. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, "Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM EPON networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 277-286 (2007).

J. Opt. Networking (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixt, Y. Y., R. Hirth, "Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks," J. Opt. Networking 1, 280-298 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

F. An, K. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).

Y. Hsueh, M. Rogge, S. Yamamoto, L. Kazovsky, "A highly flexible and efficient passive optical network employing dynamic wavelength allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 277-286 (2005).

C. Bock, J. Prat, S. Walker, "Hybrid WDM/TDM PON using the AWG FSR and featuring centralized ligth generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3981-3988 (2005).

OSA J. Opt. Networking (1)

M. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, A. Keha, "Bandwidth management for WDM EPONs," OSA J. Opt. Networking 5, 637-654 (2006).

Other (13)

Csim (Mesquite Software) http://www.mesquite.com.

K. Park, W. Willinger, Self-Similar Network Traffic and Performance Evaluation (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (McGraw-Hill, 2005).

J. M. Joo, Y. J. Ban, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for next generation access network," Proc. OFC (2006).

S. Yin, Y. Luo, N. Ansari, T. Wang, "Bandwidth allocation over EPONs: A controllability perspective," Proc. IEEE Globecom (2006).

A. Dhaini, C. Assi, A. Shami, "Quality of Service in TDM/WDM ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs)," Proc. IEEE ISCC (2006) pp. 616-621.

M. Pinedo, Scheduling: Theory, Algorithms, and Systems (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

K. Kwong, D. Harle, I. Andonovic, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for differentiated services over WDM EPONs," Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Communications Systems (2004) pp. 116-120.

M. McGarry, An evolutionary wavelength division multiplexing upgrade for Ethernet passive optical networks Master's thesis Arizona State Univ.Tempe (2004).

F. Clarke, S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, "Simultaneous and interleaved polling: An upstream protocol for WDM-PON," Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2006) pp. 3.

A. Dhaini, C. Assi, A. Shami, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes in hybrid TDM/WDM passive optical networks," Proc. IEEE CCNC (2006) pp. 30-34.

V. Jacobson, K. Nichols, K. Poduri, An expedited forwarding PHB (1999) http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2598.txt RFC 2598 (Proposed Standard) obsoleted by RFC 3246..

J. Heinanen, F. Baker, W. Weiss, J. Wroclawski, Assured forwarding PHB group (1999) http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2597.txt RFC 2597 (Proposed Standard) updated by RFC 3260..

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