Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally the uplink of a 7 $\times$ 622 Mb/s incoherent spectral amplitude coded optical code-division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) passive optical network (PON) with burst-mode reception. We consider two network architectures: local sources (LS) at each optical network unit (ONU) versus a single source located at the central office. We examine both architectures over a 20-km optical link, as well as a reference back-to-back configuration. Our architectures can adopt two-feeder and single-feeder topologies; however, we only test the two-feeder topology and therefore the effect of Rayleigh backscattering is neglected. We also study the relative merits (cost and performance) of local sources versus centralized architectures. A penalty of less than 2 dB between the LS and the centralized light sources (CLS) architectures was measured at a bit error rate (BER) of $10^{-9}$ under certain assumptions on the relative power of the sources. The power budget in the CLS architectures is more critical than in the LS architectures; extra splitting and propagation losses exist as the uplink travels through the network back and forth. Doubling the number of users while maintaining the same distance and source power in LS architectures imposes 3-dB additional losses, whereas for CLS architectures, there are 6-dB extra losses. CLS architectures can overcome these penalties using amplification at the central office. Alternately, central office amplification can be used to more than double the number of users in LS SAC-OCDMA PONs. A standalone (no global clock) burst-mode receiver with clock and data recovery (CDR), clock and phase alignment (CPA), and Reed–Solomon RS(255,239) forward-error correction (FEC) decoder is demonstrated. A penalty of less than 0.25 dB due to the nonideal sampling of the CDR is reported. The receiver also provides an instantaneous phase acquisition time for any phase step between consecutive packets, and a good immunity to silence periods. A coding gain of more than 2.5 dB was reported for a single-user system, and BER floors were completely eliminated. Error-free transmission (BER $<10^{-9}$) for a fully loaded PON was achieved for the LS architecture as well as the CLS architecture. Continuous and bursty upstream traffic were tested. Due to the CPA algorithm, even with zero preamble bits we report a zero packet loss ratio (PLR) for up to four simultaneous users in case of bursty traffic, and more than two orders of magnitude improvement in the PLR for fully loaded PON systems.

© 2008 IEEE

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2007 (2)

J. Penon, Z. A. El-Sahn, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "Spectral-amplitude-coded OCDMA optimized for a realistic FBG frequency response," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1256-1263 (2007).

D. Pastor, W. Amaya, R. Garcia-Olcina, "Design of high reflectivity superstructured FBG for coherent OCDMA employing synthesis approach," IEEE Electron. Lett. 43, 824-825 (2007).

2006 (7)

A. Li, J. Faucher, D. V. Plant, "Burst-mode clock and data recovery in optical multiaccess networks using broad-band PLLs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 73-75 (2006).

J. Faucher, S. Ayotte, Z. A. El-Sahn, M. Mukadam, L. A. Rusch, D. V. Plant, "A standalone receiver with multiple access interference rejection, clock and data recovery, and FEC for 2-D $\lambda$-t OCDMA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2123-2125 (2006).

J. Kang, S.-K. Han, "A novel hybrid WDM/SCM-PON sharing wavelength for up- and down-link using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 502-504 (2006).

T. Hamanaka, X. Wang, N. Wada, A. Nishiki, K.-I. Kitayama, "Ten-user truly asynchronous gigabit OCDMA transmission experiment with a 511-chip SSFBG en/decoder," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 95-102 (2006).

K.-I. Kitayama, X. Wang, N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON-solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1654-1662 (2006).

C.-H. Lee, W. V. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, "Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4568-4583 (2006).

R. E. Wagner, J. R. Igel, R. Whitman, M. D. Vaughn, A. B. Ruffin, S. Bickham, "Fiber-based broadband-access deployment in the United States," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4526-4540 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. Abrams, P. C. Becker, Y. Fujimoto, V. O'Byrne, D. Piehler, "FTTP deployments in the United States and Japan-equipment choices and service provider imperatives," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 236-246 (2005).

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, "Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for Fiber-to-the-Home networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 250-252 (2005).

2004 (2)

X.-Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, J. Bauwelinck, Y. Yi, D. Verhulst, J. Vandewege, B. D. Vos, P. Solina, "Development of GPON upstream physical-media-dependent prototypes," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2498-2508 (2004).

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).

2002 (1)

Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Codes for spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1284-1291 (2002).

1998 (2)

R. Feldman, E. Harstead, S. Jiang, T. Wood, M. Zirngibl, "An evaluation of architectures incorporating wavelength division multiplexing for broad-band fiber access," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1546-1559 (1998).

D. Jung, S. Shin, C.-H. Lee, Y. Chung, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum slicing techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1334-1336 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Faucher, S. Ayotte, Z. A. El-Sahn, M. Mukadam, L. A. Rusch, D. V. Plant, "A standalone receiver with multiple access interference rejection, clock and data recovery, and FEC for 2-D $\lambda$-t OCDMA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2123-2125 (2006).

IEEE Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Pastor, W. Amaya, R. Garcia-Olcina, "Design of high reflectivity superstructured FBG for coherent OCDMA employing synthesis approach," IEEE Electron. Lett. 43, 824-825 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Li, J. Faucher, D. V. Plant, "Burst-mode clock and data recovery in optical multiaccess networks using broad-band PLLs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 73-75 (2006).

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, "Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for Fiber-to-the-Home networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 250-252 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Kang, S.-K. Han, "A novel hybrid WDM/SCM-PON sharing wavelength for up- and down-link using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 502-504 (2006).

D. Jung, S. Shin, C.-H. Lee, Y. Chung, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum slicing techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1334-1336 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

T. Hamanaka, X. Wang, N. Wada, A. Nishiki, K.-I. Kitayama, "Ten-user truly asynchronous gigabit OCDMA transmission experiment with a 511-chip SSFBG en/decoder," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 95-102 (2006).

K.-I. Kitayama, X. Wang, N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON-solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1654-1662 (2006).

J. Penon, Z. A. El-Sahn, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "Spectral-amplitude-coded OCDMA optimized for a realistic FBG frequency response," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1256-1263 (2007).

Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Codes for spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1284-1291 (2002).

C.-H. Lee, W. V. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, "Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4568-4583 (2006).

M. Abrams, P. C. Becker, Y. Fujimoto, V. O'Byrne, D. Piehler, "FTTP deployments in the United States and Japan-equipment choices and service provider imperatives," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 236-246 (2005).

R. E. Wagner, J. R. Igel, R. Whitman, M. D. Vaughn, A. B. Ruffin, S. Bickham, "Fiber-based broadband-access deployment in the United States," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4526-4540 (2006).

R. Feldman, E. Harstead, S. Jiang, T. Wood, M. Zirngibl, "An evaluation of architectures incorporating wavelength division multiplexing for broad-band fiber access," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1546-1559 (1998).

X.-Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, J. Bauwelinck, Y. Yi, D. Verhulst, J. Vandewege, B. D. Vos, P. Solina, "Development of GPON upstream physical-media-dependent prototypes," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2498-2508 (2004).

Nature (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).

Other (9)

A. Girard, FTTx PON Technology and Testing (Electro-Optical Engineering Inc., 2005).

ITU-T“Broadband optical access systems based on passive optical networks,” Recommendation G.984.2 (2003).

B. Sklar, Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications (Prentice-Hall, 2001).

W. Mathlouthi, P. Lemieux, L. A. Rusch, "Optimal SOA-based noise reduction schemes for incoherent spectrum-sliced PONs," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2006).

J. Kang, Y.-Y. Won, S.-H. Lee, S.-K. Han, "Modulation characteristics of RSOA in hybrid WDM/SCM-PON optical link," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. (2006).

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, T. Soret, N. Genay, "Demonstration of a RSOA-based wavelength remodulation scheme in 1.25 Gbit/s bidirectional hybrid WDM-TDM PON," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. (2006).

P. R. Prucnal, Optical Code Division Multiple Access: Fundamentals and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 2005).

C. Arellano, C. Bock, J. Prat, K.-D. Langer, "RSOA-based optical network units for WDM-PON," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. (2006).

J. Faucher, M. Y. Mukadam, A. Li, D. V. Plant, "622/1244 Mb/s burst-mode CDR for GPONs," IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting MontrealQCCanada (2006) Paper TuDD3.

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