Abstract

We have performed a numerical study involving the design and optimization of InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide circuit, fabricated through bonding technology. The theoretical model was tested by fitting it to the lasing characteristics obtained for fabricated devices, which we presented previously. A good fit was obtained using parameter values that are consistent with numerical simulation. To obtain optimized laser performance, the composition of the InP-based epitaxial layer structure was optimized to minimize internal optical loss for a structure compatible with efficient current injection. Specific attention was paid to a tunnel-junction based approach. Bending loss was quantified to estimate the minimum microdisk diameter. The coupling between the InP microdisk and Si waveguide was calculated as function of the bonding layer thickness, waveguide offset and waveguide width. To study the lateral injection efficiency, an equivalent electrical network was solved and the voltage-current characteristic was calculated. Based on these results, the dominant device parameters were identified, including microdisk thickness and radius, coupling loss and tunnel-junction p-type doping. These parameters were optimized to obtain maximum wall-plug efficiency, for output powers in the range 1–100 µW. The results of this optimization illustrate the potential for substantial improvement in laser performance.

© 2007 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. Mccall, T. Tanbun-Ek, D. L. Coblentz, S. J. Pearton, "Room-temperature operation of microdisk lasers with submilliamp threshold current," Electron. Lett. 28, 1010-1012 (1992).
  2. T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, R. Watanabe, "Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2–10 µm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 878-880 (1997).
  3. M. Fujita, A. Sakai, T. Baba, "Ultrasmall and ultralow threshold GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection lasers: Design, fabrication, lasing characteristics, and spontaneous emission factor," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 673-681 (1999).
  4. R. Ushigome, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, T. Baba, Y. K. Kubun, "GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with benzocyclobutene polymer cladding and its athermal effect," Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6364-6369 (2002).
  5. S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).
  6. M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, T. Baba, "Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 ua," Electron. Lett. 36, 790-791 (2000).
  7. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, R. Baets, "Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744-6749 (2007).
  8. D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
  9. M. Haurylau, G. Q. Chen, H. Chen, J. D. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: Challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1699-1705 (2006).
  10. I. O'Connor, F. Tissafi-Drissi, F. Gaffiot, J. Dambre, M. De Wilde, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, J.-M. Van Campenhout, D. Stroobandt, "Systematic simulation-based predicitve synthesis of integrated optical interconnect," IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. (2007).
  11. T. P. Pearsall, Properties, Processing and Applications of Indium Phosphide (IEE , 2000).
  12. J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, J. Jacquet, "Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 520-529 (1999).
  13. M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, "2.5-mw single-mode operation of 1.55-mu m buried tunnel junction VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1596-1598 (2005).
  14. M. Vanwolleghem, P. Gogol, P. Beauvillain, W. Van Parys, R. Baets, "Design and optimization of a monolithically integratable InP-based optical waveguide isolator," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B-Opt. Phys. 24, 94-105 (2007).
  15. J. Piprek, Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices. Introduction to Physics and Simulation (Elsevier, 2003).
  16. M. Irikawa, T. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, H. Shimizu, A. Kasukawa, K. Iga, "Improved theory for carrier leakage and diffusion in multiquantum-well semiconductor lasers," Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1730-1737 (2000).
  17. P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327-341 (2001).
  18. A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, G. W. Burr, "Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in the finite-difference time domain," Opt. Lett. 31, 2972-2974 (2006).
  19. A. Morand, K. Phan-Huy, Y. Desieres, P. Benech, "Analytical study of the microdisk's resonant modes coupling with a waveguide based on the perturbation theory," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 827-832 (2004).
  20. J. Heebner, T. C. Bond, J. S. Kallman, "Generalized formulation for performance degradations due to bending and edge scattering loss in microdisk resonators," Opt. Express 15, 4452-4473 (2007).
  21. T. A. Demassa, D. P. Knott, "The prediction of tunnel diode voltage-current characteristics," Solid-State Electron. 13, 131-138 (1970).
  22. M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, "Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 675-682 (2006).
  23. I. Christiaens, Vertically coupled microring resonators fabricated with wafer bonding Ph.D. thesis Ghent Univ.GhentBelgium (2005).

2007 (4)

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, R. Baets, "Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744-6749 (2007).

I. O'Connor, F. Tissafi-Drissi, F. Gaffiot, J. Dambre, M. De Wilde, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, J.-M. Van Campenhout, D. Stroobandt, "Systematic simulation-based predicitve synthesis of integrated optical interconnect," IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. (2007).

M. Vanwolleghem, P. Gogol, P. Beauvillain, W. Van Parys, R. Baets, "Design and optimization of a monolithically integratable InP-based optical waveguide isolator," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B-Opt. Phys. 24, 94-105 (2007).

J. Heebner, T. C. Bond, J. S. Kallman, "Generalized formulation for performance degradations due to bending and edge scattering loss in microdisk resonators," Opt. Express 15, 4452-4473 (2007).

2006 (3)

M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, "Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 675-682 (2006).

A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, G. W. Burr, "Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in the finite-difference time domain," Opt. Lett. 31, 2972-2974 (2006).

M. Haurylau, G. Q. Chen, H. Chen, J. D. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: Challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1699-1705 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, "2.5-mw single-mode operation of 1.55-mu m buried tunnel junction VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1596-1598 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Morand, K. Phan-Huy, Y. Desieres, P. Benech, "Analytical study of the microdisk's resonant modes coupling with a waveguide based on the perturbation theory," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 827-832 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).

2002 (1)

R. Ushigome, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, T. Baba, Y. K. Kubun, "GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with benzocyclobutene polymer cladding and its athermal effect," Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6364-6369 (2002).

2001 (1)

P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327-341 (2001).

2000 (3)

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, T. Baba, "Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 ua," Electron. Lett. 36, 790-791 (2000).

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).

M. Irikawa, T. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, H. Shimizu, A. Kasukawa, K. Iga, "Improved theory for carrier leakage and diffusion in multiquantum-well semiconductor lasers," Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1730-1737 (2000).

1999 (2)

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, J. Jacquet, "Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 520-529 (1999).

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, T. Baba, "Ultrasmall and ultralow threshold GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection lasers: Design, fabrication, lasing characteristics, and spontaneous emission factor," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 673-681 (1999).

1997 (1)

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, R. Watanabe, "Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2–10 µm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 878-880 (1997).

1992 (1)

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. Mccall, T. Tanbun-Ek, D. L. Coblentz, S. J. Pearton, "Room-temperature operation of microdisk lasers with submilliamp threshold current," Electron. Lett. 28, 1010-1012 (1992).

1970 (1)

T. A. Demassa, D. P. Knott, "The prediction of tunnel diode voltage-current characteristics," Solid-State Electron. 13, 131-138 (1970).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, T. Baba, "Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 ua," Electron. Lett. 36, 790-791 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. Mccall, T. Tanbun-Ek, D. L. Coblentz, S. J. Pearton, "Room-temperature operation of microdisk lasers with submilliamp threshold current," Electron. Lett. 28, 1010-1012 (1992).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, J. Jacquet, "Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 520-529 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, "2.5-mw single-mode operation of 1.55-mu m buried tunnel junction VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1596-1598 (2005).

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, R. Watanabe, "Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2–10 µm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 878-880 (1997).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, "Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 675-682 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, T. Baba, "Ultrasmall and ultralow threshold GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection lasers: Design, fabrication, lasing characteristics, and spontaneous emission factor," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 673-681 (1999).

M. Haurylau, G. Q. Chen, H. Chen, J. D. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: Challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1699-1705 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. (1)

I. O'Connor, F. Tissafi-Drissi, F. Gaffiot, J. Dambre, M. De Wilde, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, J.-M. Van Campenhout, D. Stroobandt, "Systematic simulation-based predicitve synthesis of integrated optical interconnect," IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Morand, K. Phan-Huy, Y. Desieres, P. Benech, "Analytical study of the microdisk's resonant modes coupling with a waveguide based on the perturbation theory," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 827-832 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B-Opt. Phys. (1)

M. Vanwolleghem, P. Gogol, P. Beauvillain, W. Van Parys, R. Baets, "Design and optimization of a monolithically integratable InP-based optical waveguide isolator," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B-Opt. Phys. 24, 94-105 (2007).

Japan. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Irikawa, T. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, H. Shimizu, A. Kasukawa, K. Iga, "Improved theory for carrier leakage and diffusion in multiquantum-well semiconductor lasers," Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1730-1737 (2000).

R. Ushigome, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, T. Baba, Y. K. Kubun, "GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with benzocyclobutene polymer cladding and its athermal effect," Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6364-6369 (2002).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327-341 (2001).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

T. A. Demassa, D. P. Knott, "The prediction of tunnel diode voltage-current characteristics," Solid-State Electron. 13, 131-138 (1970).

Other (3)

T. P. Pearsall, Properties, Processing and Applications of Indium Phosphide (IEE , 2000).

J. Piprek, Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices. Introduction to Physics and Simulation (Elsevier, 2003).

I. Christiaens, Vertically coupled microring resonators fabricated with wafer bonding Ph.D. thesis Ghent Univ.GhentBelgium (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.