Abstract

We demonstrate that higher order bandgaps in all-silica Bragg fibers can have modes with four orders of magnitude lower confinement loss than those using the fundamental bandgap. A scheme for exploiting the higher order gaps for any specific wavelength via a global scaling of the fiber geometry is proposed. This approach provides lower losses than by reducing the confinement loss of the fundamental gap by scaling the core. Using a variety of modeling techniques, we have examined the band structure and guidance of idealized air-core all-silica Bragg fibers. It is demonstrated that the higher order, low loss, bandgaps analyzed here are uniquely accessible to single-material Bragg fibers, and are fundamentally different from the higher order gaps typically associated with depressed-index Bragg fibers such as the “Omniguide” fibers. Further analysis suggests that some of the key features of the guided modes of Bragg fibers can be understood by considering the properties of single hollow-core homogeneous dielectric waveguides (“boreholes”).

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
  2. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 1196-1201 (1978).
  3. B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps," Nature 420, (2002).
  4. K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
  5. G. Vienne, Y. Xu, C. Jakobsen, H. Deyerl, J. Jensen, T. Sorensen, T. Hansen, Y. Huang, M. Terrel, R. Lee, N. Mortensen, J. Broeng, H. Simonsen, A. Bjarklev, A. Yariv, "Ultra-large bandwidth hollow-core guiding in all-silica Bragg fibers with nano-supports," Opt. Express 12, 3500-3508 (2004).
  6. Y. Xu, A. Yariv, J. Fleming, S. Lin, "Asymptotic analysis of silicon based Bragg fibers," Opt. Express 11, 1039-1049 (2003).
  7. S. G. Uranus, H. Hoekstra, "Modelling of microstructured waveguides using a finite-element-based vectorial mode solver with transparent boundary conditions," Opt. Express 12, 2795-2809 (2004).
  8. F. Poli, M. Foroni, D. Giovanelli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, B. J. Jensen, J. Lgsgaard, A. O. Bjarklev, G. Vienne, C. Jakobsen, J. Broeng, "Silica bridge impact on hollow-core Bragg fiber transmission properties," Proc. OFC 2007 (2007).
  9. K. Rowland, S. Afshar, T. M. Monro, "Reduction of confinement loss in all-silica Bragg bandgap fibers," Proc. OFC 2007 (2007).
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  11. S. Guo, S. Albin, R. Rogowski, "Comparative analysis of Bragg fibers," Opt. Express 12, 198-207 (2004).
  12. Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Asymptotic analysis of dielectric coaxial fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 25, 1756-1758 (2000).
  13. Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Asymptotic analysis of Bragg fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 27, 1019-1021 (2002).
  14. S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. Jacobs, J. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core OmniGuide fibers," Opt. Express 9, 748-779 (2001).
  15. V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, "Small-core silica holey fibers: Nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 1427-1436 (2003).
  16. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).
  17. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C. Hong, "Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media. I. General theory," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 67, 423-438 (1978).
  18. A. Argyros, "Guided modes and loss in Bragg fibers," Opt. Express 10, 1411-1417 (2002).
  19. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002).
  20. I. M. Bassett, A. Argyros, "Elimination of polarization degeneracy in round waveguides," Opt. Express 10, 1342-1346 (2002).
  21. A. Argyros, I. M. Bassett, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, "Analysis of ring-structured Bragg fibres for single TE mode guidance," Opt. Express 12, 2688-2698 (2004).
  22. E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long-distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).
  23. J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1941).
  24. N. A. Issa, A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, J. Zagari, "Identifying hollow waveguide guidance in air-cored microstructured optical fibres," Opt. Express 11, 996-1001 (2003).

2006 (1)

P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

2004 (5)

2003 (3)

N. A. Issa, A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, J. Zagari, "Identifying hollow waveguide guidance in air-cored microstructured optical fibres," Opt. Express 11, 996-1001 (2003).

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, "Small-core silica holey fibers: Nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 1427-1436 (2003).

Y. Xu, A. Yariv, J. Fleming, S. Lin, "Asymptotic analysis of silicon based Bragg fibers," Opt. Express 11, 1039-1049 (2003).

2002 (5)

Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Asymptotic analysis of Bragg fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 27, 1019-1021 (2002).

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps," Nature 420, (2002).

I. M. Bassett, A. Argyros, "Elimination of polarization degeneracy in round waveguides," Opt. Express 10, 1342-1346 (2002).

A. Argyros, "Guided modes and loss in Bragg fibers," Opt. Express 10, 1411-1417 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Asymptotic analysis of dielectric coaxial fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 25, 1756-1758 (2000).

1978 (2)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 1196-1201 (1978).

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C. Hong, "Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media. I. General theory," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 67, 423-438 (1978).

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long-distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long-distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C. Hong, "Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media. I. General theory," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 67, 423-438 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Asymptotic analysis of dielectric coaxial fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 25, 1756-1758 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (2)

Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Asymptotic analysis of Bragg fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 27, 1019-1021 (2002).

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 1196-1201 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, "Small-core silica holey fibers: Nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 1427-1436 (2003).

Nature (1)

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps," Nature 420, (2002).

Opt. Express (1)

N. A. Issa, A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, J. Zagari, "Identifying hollow waveguide guidance in air-cored microstructured optical fibres," Opt. Express 11, 996-1001 (2003).

Opt. Express (9)

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. Jacobs, J. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core OmniGuide fibers," Opt. Express 9, 748-779 (2001).

I. M. Bassett, A. Argyros, "Elimination of polarization degeneracy in round waveguides," Opt. Express 10, 1342-1346 (2002).

A. Argyros, "Guided modes and loss in Bragg fibers," Opt. Express 10, 1411-1417 (2002).

Y. Xu, A. Yariv, J. Fleming, S. Lin, "Asymptotic analysis of silicon based Bragg fibers," Opt. Express 11, 1039-1049 (2003).

S. Guo, S. Albin, R. Rogowski, "Comparative analysis of Bragg fibers," Opt. Express 12, 198-207 (2004).

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express 12, 1510-1517 (2004).

A. Argyros, I. M. Bassett, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, "Analysis of ring-structured Bragg fibres for single TE mode guidance," Opt. Express 12, 2688-2698 (2004).

S. G. Uranus, H. Hoekstra, "Modelling of microstructured waveguides using a finite-element-based vectorial mode solver with transparent boundary conditions," Opt. Express 12, 2795-2809 (2004).

G. Vienne, Y. Xu, C. Jakobsen, H. Deyerl, J. Jensen, T. Sorensen, T. Hansen, Y. Huang, M. Terrel, R. Lee, N. Mortensen, J. Broeng, H. Simonsen, A. Bjarklev, A. Yariv, "Ultra-large bandwidth hollow-core guiding in all-silica Bragg fibers with nano-supports," Opt. Express 12, 3500-3508 (2004).

Other (5)

F. Poli, M. Foroni, D. Giovanelli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, B. J. Jensen, J. Lgsgaard, A. O. Bjarklev, G. Vienne, C. Jakobsen, J. Broeng, "Silica bridge impact on hollow-core Bragg fiber transmission properties," Proc. OFC 2007 (2007).

K. Rowland, S. Afshar, T. M. Monro, "Reduction of confinement loss in all-silica Bragg bandgap fibers," Proc. OFC 2007 (2007).

W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media (IEEE, 1995).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002).

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1941).

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