Abstract

The basic functional element of microfiber photonics is a microfiber coil resonator (MCR), which potentially can perform filtering, time delay, and nonlinear transformations of electromagnetic waves, as well as sensing of the ambient medium. The first experimental demonstration of an MCR has been recently performed by researchers of the OFS Laboratories (Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2007, Postdeadline paper PDP46). This paper follows up on the later publication presenting a brief introduction to the theory, transmission properties and applications of optical micro/nanofibers and MCRs. Fabrication of MCRs in air and in liquid is reported. For the MCR immersed in liquid, the Q-factor exceeding 60 000 is achieved.

© 2008 IEEE

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  21. G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41, 400-402 (2005).
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  32. I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, "Liquid core optical ring resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006).
  33. X. Jiang, L. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, A. Tsao, Q. Yang, D. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2007) Art. 223501.
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  35. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale, J. W. Nicholson, "Probing optical microfiber nonuniformities at nanoscale," Opt. Lett. 31, 2393-2395 (2007).
  36. X. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. Li, L. Tong, J. Zhang, L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett (2007) 89, Art. 143513.
  37. M. Sumetsky, "How thin can a microfiber be and still guide light? Errata," Opt. Lett. 31, 3577-3578 (2007).
  38. M. Sumetsky, "Optics of tunneling from adiabatic nanotapers," Opt. Lett. 31, 3420-3422 (2007).
  39. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, P. Domachuk, B. J. Eggleton, "Thinnest optical waveguide: Experimental test," Opt. Lett. 32, 754-756 (2007).
  40. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, M. Fishteyn, "Demonstration of a multi-turn microfiber coil resonator," Postdeadline Papers, Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2007 (2007).
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  42. F. Xu, P. Horak, G. Brambilla, "Conical and biconical ultra-high-Q optical-fiber nanowire microcoil resonator," Appl. Opt. 46, 570-573 (2007).
  43. H. W. Chen, Y. T. Li, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. K. Sun, "Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength THz fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1017-1019 (2007).
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  46. A. A. Savchenkov, I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, L. Maleki, "Morphology-dependent photonic circuit elements," Opt. Lett. 31, 1313-1315 (2007).
  47. F. Xu, G. Brambilla, "Embedding optical microfiber coil resonators in Teflon," Opt. Lett. 32, 2164-2166 (2007).

2007 (13)

L. Tong, L. Hu, J. Zhang, J. Qiu, Q. Yang, J. Lou, Y. Shen, J. He, Z. Ye, "Photonic nanowires directly drawn from bulk glasses," Opt. Express 14, 82-87 (2007).

X. Jiang, L. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, A. Tsao, Q. Yang, D. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2007) Art. 223501.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale, J. W. Nicholson, "Probing optical microfiber nonuniformities at nanoscale," Opt. Lett. 31, 2393-2395 (2007).

X. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. Li, L. Tong, J. Zhang, L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett (2007) 89, Art. 143513.

M. Sumetsky, "How thin can a microfiber be and still guide light? Errata," Opt. Lett. 31, 3577-3578 (2007).

M. Sumetsky, "Optics of tunneling from adiabatic nanotapers," Opt. Lett. 31, 3420-3422 (2007).

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, P. Domachuk, B. J. Eggleton, "Thinnest optical waveguide: Experimental test," Opt. Lett. 32, 754-756 (2007).

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, "Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic fluorescence," Opt. Express 15, 5431-5438 (2007).

F. Xu, P. Horak, G. Brambilla, "Conical and biconical ultra-high-Q optical-fiber nanowire microcoil resonator," Appl. Opt. 46, 570-573 (2007).

H. W. Chen, Y. T. Li, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. K. Sun, "Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength THz fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1017-1019 (2007).

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, X. Feng, "Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterization," Electron. Lett. 42, 517-519 (2007).

A. A. Savchenkov, I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, L. Maleki, "Morphology-dependent photonic circuit elements," Opt. Lett. 31, 1313-1315 (2007).

F. Xu, G. Brambilla, "Embedding optical microfiber coil resonators in Teflon," Opt. Lett. 32, 2164-2166 (2007).

2006 (3)

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, "Liquid core optical ring resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006).

M. Sumetsky, "How thin can a microfiber be and still guide light?," Opt. Lett. 31, 870-872 (2006).

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale, D. J. DiGiovanni, "The Microfiber loop resonator: Theory, experiment, and application," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 242-250 (2006).

2005 (8)

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41, 400-402 (2005).

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale, "Optical microfiber loop resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005) Art. 161108.

M. Sumetsky, "Uniform coil optical resonator and waveguide: Transmission spectrum, eigenmodes, and dispersion relation," Opt. Express 13, 4331-4340 (2005).

J. Villatoro, D. Monzòn-Hernàndez, "Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers," Opt. Express 13, 5087-5092 (2005).

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, M. Mansuripur, "Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels," Opt. Lett. 30, 1273-1275 (2005).

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, B. J. Eggleton, "Tapered photonic crystal fibres: Properties, characterization and applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 377-387 (2005).

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, "Loss in solid-core photonic crystal fibers due to interface roughness scattering," Opt. Express 13, 7779-7793 (2005).

2004 (6)

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, O. Painter, "Efficient input and output fiber coupling to a photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 29, 697-699 (2004).

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, D. J. Richardson, "Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers," Opt. Express 12, 2258-2263 (2004).

M. Sumetsky, "Optical fiber microcoil resonator," Opt. Express 12, 2303-2316 (2004).

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St, J. Russell, "Guidance properties of low-contrast photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 12, 2864-2869 (2004).

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, A. Hale, "Fabrication and study of bent and coiled free silica nanowires: Self-coupling microloop optical interferometer," Opt. Express 12, 3521-3531 (2004).

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. Le Kien, J. Q. Liang, M. Morinaga, "Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. 70, (2004) A Art. 011401.

2003 (2)

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839-846 (2003).

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, T. E. Dimmick, "High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182-184 (2000).

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St, J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1415-1417 (2000).

1999 (1)

J. Bures, R. Ghosh, "Power density of the evanescent field in the vicinity of a tapered fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 16, 1992-1996 (1999).

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

W. M. Henry, F. P. Payne, "Solid-state tapered optical fibre devices," J Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 185-191 (1995).

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

H. S. Mackenzie, F. P. Payne, "Evanescent field amplification in a tapered single-mode fibre," Electron. Lett. 26, 130-132 (1990).

1989 (1)

C. Caspar, E.-J. Bachus, "Fibre-optics micro-ring-resonator with 2 mm diameter," Electron. Lett. 25, 1506-1508 (1989).

1961 (1)

N. S. Kapany, J. J. Burke, "Fiber optics. ix. waveguide effects," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 1067-1078 (1961).

1959 (1)

N. S. Kapany, "High-resolution fibre optics using sub-micron multiple fibres," Nature 184, 881-883 (1959).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale, D. J. DiGiovanni, "The Microfiber loop resonator: Theory, experiment, and application," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 242-250 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (1)

F. Xu, P. Horak, G. Brambilla, "Conical and biconical ultra-high-Q optical-fiber nanowire microcoil resonator," Appl. Opt. 46, 570-573 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. Jiang, L. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, A. Tsao, Q. Yang, D. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2007) Art. 223501.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale, "Optical microfiber loop resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005) Art. 161108.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, B. J. Eggleton, "Tapered photonic crystal fibres: Properties, characterization and applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 377-387 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

X. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. Li, L. Tong, J. Zhang, L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett (2007) 89, Art. 143513.

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41, 400-402 (2005).

Electron. Lett. (3)

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, X. Feng, "Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterization," Electron. Lett. 42, 517-519 (2007).

C. Caspar, E.-J. Bachus, "Fibre-optics micro-ring-resonator with 2 mm diameter," Electron. Lett. 25, 1506-1508 (1989).

H. S. Mackenzie, F. P. Payne, "Evanescent field amplification in a tapered single-mode fibre," Electron. Lett. 26, 130-132 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, T. E. Dimmick, "High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182-184 (2000).

J Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. M. Henry, F. P. Payne, "Solid-state tapered optical fibre devices," J Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 185-191 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

N. S. Kapany, J. J. Burke, "Fiber optics. ix. waveguide effects," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 1067-1078 (1961).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

J. Bures, R. Ghosh, "Power density of the evanescent field in the vicinity of a tapered fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 16, 1992-1996 (1999).

Nano Lett. (1)

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).

Nature (3)

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839-846 (2003).

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).

N. S. Kapany, "High-resolution fibre optics using sub-micron multiple fibres," Nature 184, 881-883 (1959).

Opt. Express (5)

M. Sumetsky, "Optical fiber microcoil resonator," Opt. Express 12, 2303-2316 (2004).

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St, J. Russell, "Guidance properties of low-contrast photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 12, 2864-2869 (2004).

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, A. Hale, "Fabrication and study of bent and coiled free silica nanowires: Self-coupling microloop optical interferometer," Opt. Express 12, 3521-3531 (2004).

M. Sumetsky, "Uniform coil optical resonator and waveguide: Transmission spectrum, eigenmodes, and dispersion relation," Opt. Express 13, 4331-4340 (2005).

J. Villatoro, D. Monzòn-Hernàndez, "Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers," Opt. Express 13, 5087-5092 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (2)

H. W. Chen, Y. T. Li, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. K. Sun, "Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength THz fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1017-1019 (2007).

F. Xu, G. Brambilla, "Embedding optical microfiber coil resonators in Teflon," Opt. Lett. 32, 2164-2166 (2007).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (12)

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, O. Painter, "Efficient input and output fiber coupling to a photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 29, 697-699 (2004).

J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, T. A. Birks, "Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery mode resonances by a fiber taper," Opt. Lett. 22, 1129-1131 (1997).

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St, J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1415-1417 (2000).

G. Kakarantzas, T. E. Dimmick, T. A. Birks, R. Le Roux, P. S. J. Russell, "Miniature all-fiber devices based on CO2 laser microstructuring of tapered fibers," Opt. Lett. 26, 1137-1139 (2001).

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, M. Mansuripur, "Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels," Opt. Lett. 30, 1273-1275 (2005).

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, "Liquid core optical ring resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006).

M. Sumetsky, "How thin can a microfiber be and still guide light?," Opt. Lett. 31, 870-872 (2006).

M. Sumetsky, "How thin can a microfiber be and still guide light? Errata," Opt. Lett. 31, 3577-3578 (2007).

M. Sumetsky, "Optics of tunneling from adiabatic nanotapers," Opt. Lett. 31, 3420-3422 (2007).

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, P. Domachuk, B. J. Eggleton, "Thinnest optical waveguide: Experimental test," Opt. Lett. 32, 754-756 (2007).

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale, J. W. Nicholson, "Probing optical microfiber nonuniformities at nanoscale," Opt. Lett. 31, 2393-2395 (2007).

A. A. Savchenkov, I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, L. Maleki, "Morphology-dependent photonic circuit elements," Opt. Lett. 31, 1313-1315 (2007).

Phys. Rev. (1)

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. Le Kien, J. Q. Liang, M. Morinaga, "Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. 70, (2004) A Art. 011401.

Other (4)

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, M. Fishteyn, "Demonstration of a multi-turn microfiber coil resonator," Postdeadline Papers, Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2007 (2007).

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, "Sensing an optical fiber surface by a microfiber with angstrom accuracy," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. .

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Optical surface microscopy with a moving microsphere," Nanophoton. Top. Meet. .

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