Abstract

The performance of different electronic equalization and processing schemes for 40- and 10-Gb/s optical transmission over single-mode fiber (SMF) are discussed, from the point of their ability to compensate chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD). In addition, the impact of fiber nonlinearity and modulation format on equalization is also investigated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview and a comparison of the performances rather than a detailed explanation of the principles of the different equalization schemes. The equalizers which will be covered are analog equalizer (feedforward and decision feedback type), maximum likelihood sequence estimator (MLSE), electronic precompensation, coherent/intradyne detection with digital signal processing (DSP) equalization, DSP-based optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), and turbo equalization.

© 2008 IEEE

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  2. L. Möller, A. Thiede, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Benz, M. Lang, T. Jakobus, M. Schlecthweg, "ISI mitigation using decision feedback loop demonstrated with PMD distorted 10 Gbit/s signals," Electron. Lett. 35, 2092-2093 (1999).
  3. H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equalizer circuits," Electron. Lett. 36, 163-164 (2000).
  4. J. Poirrier, A. Gnauck, J. Winters, "Experimental nonlinear cancellation of polarization-mode dispersion ," Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC (2000) pp. 119-121.
  5. H. Bülow, G. Thielecke, "Electronic PMD mitigation – from linear equalization to maximum-likelihood detection," Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC' 2001 (2001) pp. WAA3–1-WAA3–3.
  6. H. F. Haunstein, K. Sticht, A. Dittrich, M. Lorang, W. Sauer-Greff, R. Urbansky, "Implementation of near optimum electrical equalization at 10 Gbit/s," Proc. ECOC 2000 (2000) pp. 223-224.
  7. A. Färbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, J. P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, C. Glingener, "Performance of a 10.7 Gb/s receiver with digital equalizer using maximum likelihood sequence estimation," Proc. ECOC (2004).
  8. H.-M. Bae, J. B. Ashbrook, J. Park, N. R. Shanbhag, A. C. Singer, S. Chopra, "An MLSE receiver for electronic dispersion compensation of OC-192 fiber links ," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2541-2554 (2006).
  9. M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).
  10. S. Tsukamoto, "Coherent demodulation of 40-Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission," Proc. OFC2005 (2005).
  11. R. Noé, "Phase noise tolerant synchronous QPSK receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," Proc. OECC/COIN2004 (2004) pp. 818-819.
  12. A. J. Lowery, L. Du, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006) pp. 1-3.
  13. W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-588 (2006).
  14. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "20-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF enabled by RF-pilot tone phase noise compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  15. M. M. El Said, J. Stich, M. I. Elmasry, "An electrically preequalized 10-Gb/s duobinary transmission system," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 388-400 (2005).
  16. D. McGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savchenko, C. Li, G. Mak, M. O'Sullivan, "5120 km RZ-DPSK transmission over G652 fiber at 10 Gb/s with no optical dispersion compensation," OFC (2005).
  17. H. Bülow, "Electronic dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  18. B. Franz, F. Buchali, D. Rösener, H. Bülow, "Adaptation techniques for electronic equalizers for the mitigation of time-variant distortions in 43 Gbit/s optical transmission systems," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007) pp. 1-3.
  19. T. Ito, "Suppression of BER fluctuations by electrical equalizer in the ultra-long 43 Gb/s transmission experiments," Proc. OEEC OECC/IOOC 2007, Proc. (2007).
  20. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, S. Savory, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, J. Prat, "1,040 km uncompensated IMDD transmission over G.652 fiber at 10 Gbit/s using a reduced-state SQRT-Metric MLSE receiver," Proc. ECOC (2006).
  21. M. Cavallari, "Electronic signal processing for differential phase modulation formats," Tech. Dig., OFC'04 (2004).
  22. F. Buchali, "Electronic dispersion compensation for enhanced optical transmission," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006 (2006).
  23. M. S. O'Sullivan, K. Roberts, C. Bontum, "Electronic dispersion compensation techniques for optical communication systems," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 189-190.
  24. R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).
  25. S. Tsukamoto, Y. Ishikawa, K. Kikuchi, "Optical homodyne receiver comprising phase and polarization diversities with digital signal processing," Proc. ECOC (2006).
  26. A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007) pp. 1-3.
  27. C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "10 x 111 Gbit/s 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007) pp. 1-3.
  28. C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "Wavelength division mulitplexing (WDM) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) performance of a coherent 40 Gbit/s dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) transceiver," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  29. S. J. Savory, A. D. Stewart, S. Wood, G. Gavioli, M. G. Taylor, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Digital equalization of 40 Gbit/s per wavelength transmission over 2480 km of standard fibre without optical dispersion compensation," Proc. ECOC (2006).
  30. S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Transmission of 42.8 Gbit/s polarization multiplexed NRZ-QPSK over 6400 km of standard fiber with no optical dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  31. A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for optical dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  32. W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, Y. Tang, "PMD-supported transmission assisted by polarization-diversity detection and coherent optical OFDM signal processing," Proc. OECC/IOOC 2007 (2007).
  33. S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, "Demonstration of 100% precompensated DWDM transmission over 1280 km of SSMF with no inline dispersion compensation using interconnected recirculating loops," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 256-258 (2006).
  34. A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, M. Audoin, H. Bülow, "Nonlinear limitations of electronic dispersion precompensation by intrachannel effects," Tech. Dig. OFC 2006 (2006).
  35. M. Birk, X. Zhou, M. Boroditsky, S. H. Foo, D. Bownass, M. Moyer, M. O'Sullivan, "WDM technical trial with complete electronic dispersion compensation," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).
  36. G. Charlet, N. Maaref, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Transmission of 40 Gb/s QPSK with coherent detection over ultra-long distance improved by nonlinearity mitigation," ECOC (2006).
  37. D. McGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savchenko, C. Li, G. Mak, M. O'Sullivan, "5120-km RZ-DPSK transmission over G.652 fiber at 10 Gb/s without optical dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 400-402 (2006).
  38. R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion," Proc. OFC (2006).
  39. G. Goeger, "Modulation format with enhanced SMP-Rbustness for electronically predistorted transmission," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).
  40. D. Breuer, "Measurements of PMD in the installed fiber plant of deutsche telekom," LEOS Summer Topical (2003) pp. MB2.1/5-MB2.1/6.
  41. J. Zhao, L.-K. Chen, C.-K. Chan, "Maximum likelihood sequence estimation for chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion compensation in 3-Chip DPSK modulation format," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  42. T. Schorr, W. Sauer-Greff, R. Urbansky, H. Haunstein, A. Zottmann, "Performance and complexity of iterative equalization for FEC systems in optical PMD channels," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).
  43. I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "Adaptive BCJR equalizer in suppression of intrachannel nonlinearities," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).
  44. M. Jaeger, T. Rankl, J. Speidel, F. Buchali, H. Buelow, "Performance of turbo equalizers for optical PMD channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1226-1235 (2006).
  45. J. Poirrier, "FEC performance in combination with electronic dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).
  46. H. Bülow, F. Buchali, B. Franz, "Enhancement of tolerances in transmission systems by analog and digital signal processing," Proc. Asia-Pacific Opt. Commun. Conf. (APOC 2005) (2005).
  47. H. Haunstein, T. Schorr, A. Zottmann, W. Sauer-Greff, R. Urbansky, "Performance comparison of MLSE and iterative equalization in FEC systems for PMD channels with respect to implementation complexity," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4047-4054 (2006).
  48. A. Klekamp, H. Bülow, "Experimental comparison of PMD tolerances of binary 43 Gb/s modulation formats without and with PMD compensation," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).
  49. G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Efficient mitigation of fiber impairment in an ultra-long haul transmission of 40 Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed data, by digital processing in a coherent receiver," Proc. OFC (2007).
  50. H. Bülow, "Outage vs PMD tolerance tradeoff for fast polarization scrambling," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).
  51. A. Klekamp, B. Junginger, H. Bülow, "Experimental PMD mitigation for 43 Gb/s DPSK by distributed polarisation scrambling over 4 spans SMF fibre," Proc. ECOC (2006).

2006 (7)

H.-M. Bae, J. B. Ashbrook, J. Park, N. R. Shanbhag, A. C. Singer, S. Chopra, "An MLSE receiver for electronic dispersion compensation of OC-192 fiber links ," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2541-2554 (2006).

R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, "Demonstration of 100% precompensated DWDM transmission over 1280 km of SSMF with no inline dispersion compensation using interconnected recirculating loops," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 256-258 (2006).

D. McGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savchenko, C. Li, G. Mak, M. O'Sullivan, "5120-km RZ-DPSK transmission over G.652 fiber at 10 Gb/s without optical dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 400-402 (2006).

M. Jaeger, T. Rankl, J. Speidel, F. Buchali, H. Buelow, "Performance of turbo equalizers for optical PMD channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1226-1235 (2006).

H. Haunstein, T. Schorr, A. Zottmann, W. Sauer-Greff, R. Urbansky, "Performance comparison of MLSE and iterative equalization in FEC systems for PMD channels with respect to implementation complexity," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4047-4054 (2006).

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-588 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. M. El Said, J. Stich, M. I. Elmasry, "An electrically preequalized 10-Gb/s duobinary transmission system," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 388-400 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

2000 (1)

H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equalizer circuits," Electron. Lett. 36, 163-164 (2000).

1999 (1)

L. Möller, A. Thiede, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Benz, M. Lang, T. Jakobus, M. Schlecthweg, "ISI mitigation using decision feedback loop demonstrated with PMD distorted 10 Gbit/s signals," Electron. Lett. 35, 2092-2093 (1999).

1990 (1)

J. H. Winters, R. D. Gitlin, "Electrical signal procressing techniques in long-haul fiber-optic systems," Trans. Commun. 38, 1439-1453 (1990).

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-588 (2006).

Electron. Lett. (2)

L. Möller, A. Thiede, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Benz, M. Lang, T. Jakobus, M. Schlecthweg, "ISI mitigation using decision feedback loop demonstrated with PMD distorted 10 Gbit/s signals," Electron. Lett. 35, 2092-2093 (1999).

H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equalizer circuits," Electron. Lett. 36, 163-164 (2000).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

H.-M. Bae, J. B. Ashbrook, J. Park, N. R. Shanbhag, A. C. Singer, S. Chopra, "An MLSE receiver for electronic dispersion compensation of OC-192 fiber links ," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2541-2554 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, "Demonstration of 100% precompensated DWDM transmission over 1280 km of SSMF with no inline dispersion compensation using interconnected recirculating loops," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 256-258 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. McGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savchenko, C. Li, G. Mak, M. O'Sullivan, "5120-km RZ-DPSK transmission over G.652 fiber at 10 Gb/s without optical dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 400-402 (2006).

R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Jaeger, T. Rankl, J. Speidel, F. Buchali, H. Buelow, "Performance of turbo equalizers for optical PMD channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1226-1235 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

H. Haunstein, T. Schorr, A. Zottmann, W. Sauer-Greff, R. Urbansky, "Performance comparison of MLSE and iterative equalization in FEC systems for PMD channels with respect to implementation complexity," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4047-4054 (2006).

M. M. El Said, J. Stich, M. I. Elmasry, "An electrically preequalized 10-Gb/s duobinary transmission system," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 388-400 (2005).

Trans. Commun. (1)

J. H. Winters, R. D. Gitlin, "Electrical signal procressing techniques in long-haul fiber-optic systems," Trans. Commun. 38, 1439-1453 (1990).

Other (39)

A. Klekamp, H. Bülow, "Experimental comparison of PMD tolerances of binary 43 Gb/s modulation formats without and with PMD compensation," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Efficient mitigation of fiber impairment in an ultra-long haul transmission of 40 Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed data, by digital processing in a coherent receiver," Proc. OFC (2007).

H. Bülow, "Outage vs PMD tolerance tradeoff for fast polarization scrambling," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).

A. Klekamp, B. Junginger, H. Bülow, "Experimental PMD mitigation for 43 Gb/s DPSK by distributed polarisation scrambling over 4 spans SMF fibre," Proc. ECOC (2006).

J. Poirrier, "FEC performance in combination with electronic dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).

H. Bülow, F. Buchali, B. Franz, "Enhancement of tolerances in transmission systems by analog and digital signal processing," Proc. Asia-Pacific Opt. Commun. Conf. (APOC 2005) (2005).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "20-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF enabled by RF-pilot tone phase noise compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

D. McGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savchenko, C. Li, G. Mak, M. O'Sullivan, "5120 km RZ-DPSK transmission over G652 fiber at 10 Gb/s with no optical dispersion compensation," OFC (2005).

H. Bülow, "Electronic dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

B. Franz, F. Buchali, D. Rösener, H. Bülow, "Adaptation techniques for electronic equalizers for the mitigation of time-variant distortions in 43 Gbit/s optical transmission systems," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007) pp. 1-3.

T. Ito, "Suppression of BER fluctuations by electrical equalizer in the ultra-long 43 Gb/s transmission experiments," Proc. OEEC OECC/IOOC 2007, Proc. (2007).

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, S. Savory, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, J. Prat, "1,040 km uncompensated IMDD transmission over G.652 fiber at 10 Gbit/s using a reduced-state SQRT-Metric MLSE receiver," Proc. ECOC (2006).

M. Cavallari, "Electronic signal processing for differential phase modulation formats," Tech. Dig., OFC'04 (2004).

F. Buchali, "Electronic dispersion compensation for enhanced optical transmission," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006 (2006).

M. S. O'Sullivan, K. Roberts, C. Bontum, "Electronic dispersion compensation techniques for optical communication systems," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 189-190.

S. Tsukamoto, "Coherent demodulation of 40-Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission," Proc. OFC2005 (2005).

R. Noé, "Phase noise tolerant synchronous QPSK receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," Proc. OECC/COIN2004 (2004) pp. 818-819.

A. J. Lowery, L. Du, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006) pp. 1-3.

J. Poirrier, A. Gnauck, J. Winters, "Experimental nonlinear cancellation of polarization-mode dispersion ," Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC (2000) pp. 119-121.

H. Bülow, G. Thielecke, "Electronic PMD mitigation – from linear equalization to maximum-likelihood detection," Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC' 2001 (2001) pp. WAA3–1-WAA3–3.

H. F. Haunstein, K. Sticht, A. Dittrich, M. Lorang, W. Sauer-Greff, R. Urbansky, "Implementation of near optimum electrical equalization at 10 Gbit/s," Proc. ECOC 2000 (2000) pp. 223-224.

A. Färbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, J. P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, C. Glingener, "Performance of a 10.7 Gb/s receiver with digital equalizer using maximum likelihood sequence estimation," Proc. ECOC (2004).

S. Tsukamoto, Y. Ishikawa, K. Kikuchi, "Optical homodyne receiver comprising phase and polarization diversities with digital signal processing," Proc. ECOC (2006).

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007) pp. 1-3.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "10 x 111 Gbit/s 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007) pp. 1-3.

C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "Wavelength division mulitplexing (WDM) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) performance of a coherent 40 Gbit/s dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) transceiver," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

S. J. Savory, A. D. Stewart, S. Wood, G. Gavioli, M. G. Taylor, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Digital equalization of 40 Gbit/s per wavelength transmission over 2480 km of standard fibre without optical dispersion compensation," Proc. ECOC (2006).

S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Transmission of 42.8 Gbit/s polarization multiplexed NRZ-QPSK over 6400 km of standard fiber with no optical dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for optical dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, Y. Tang, "PMD-supported transmission assisted by polarization-diversity detection and coherent optical OFDM signal processing," Proc. OECC/IOOC 2007 (2007).

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion," Proc. OFC (2006).

G. Goeger, "Modulation format with enhanced SMP-Rbustness for electronically predistorted transmission," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).

D. Breuer, "Measurements of PMD in the installed fiber plant of deutsche telekom," LEOS Summer Topical (2003) pp. MB2.1/5-MB2.1/6.

J. Zhao, L.-K. Chen, C.-K. Chan, "Maximum likelihood sequence estimation for chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion compensation in 3-Chip DPSK modulation format," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

T. Schorr, W. Sauer-Greff, R. Urbansky, H. Haunstein, A. Zottmann, "Performance and complexity of iterative equalization for FEC systems in optical PMD channels," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).

I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "Adaptive BCJR equalizer in suppression of intrachannel nonlinearities," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).

A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, M. Audoin, H. Bülow, "Nonlinear limitations of electronic dispersion precompensation by intrachannel effects," Tech. Dig. OFC 2006 (2006).

M. Birk, X. Zhou, M. Boroditsky, S. H. Foo, D. Bownass, M. Moyer, M. O'Sullivan, "WDM technical trial with complete electronic dispersion compensation," Proc. ECOC 2006 (2006).

G. Charlet, N. Maaref, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Transmission of 40 Gb/s QPSK with coherent detection over ultra-long distance improved by nonlinearity mitigation," ECOC (2006).

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