Abstract

The noise figure (NF) of a dual-pumped parametric amplifier with copolarized pumps is quantified for the first time to our knowledge. It is shown that the NF is increased by the noise on the pump sources, in agreement with theory, and that it gives a uniform NF degradation due to a uniform gain spectrum. The magnitude of the NF degradation increases with increasing input-signal power. Various aspects of the NF are studied, such as the effects of three idlers generated by the four-sideband interaction, and Raman-induced losses and excess noise caused by the population of thermal phonons. It is shown that the use of unequal pump powers only affects the low-power NF to a minimal degree. Also, the gain dependence of the NF is studied, as are the wavelength and signal power dependences of the NF. It is shown that at high gain, the NF saturates even when pump noise is an issue. Also, unequal pump powers with fixed gain have a minor impact on the noise performance of the amplifier. Theory and experiments agree well with each other.

© 2007 IEEE

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  2. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194-196 (2001).
  3. A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA (Academic, 1997) pp. 162-195.
  4. M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinearity-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2012-2022 (2005).
  5. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Quantum noise limits on optical monitoring with parametric devices," Opt. Commun. 259, 309-320 (2006).
  6. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Lie, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
  7. T. Yamamoto, M. Nakazawa, "Active optical pulse compression with a gain of 29.0 dB by using four-wave mixing in an optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1595-1597 (1997).
  8. J. Li, J. Hansryd, P.-O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, "300-Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 987-989 (2001).
  9. P.-O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, "Demonstration of fibre four-wave mixing optical demultiplexing with 19 dB parametric amplification ," Electron. Lett. 32, 830-831 (1996).
  10. Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-Gbs optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
  11. K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifiers ," Electron. Lett. 36, 1016-1017 (2000).
  12. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one- and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 957-959 (2003).
  13. C. Yu, T. Luo, B. Zhang, Z. Pan, M. Adler, Y. Wang, J. E. McCeehan, A. E. Willner, "3R regeneration of a 40-Gb/s optical signal by optical parametric amplification in a highly-nonlinear fiber," Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OTu1.
  14. G. Cappellini, S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: Exact solution and spatial instability effects," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 8, 824-838 (1991).
  15. K. K. Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, L. G. Kazovsky, "Fiber optical parametric amplifier and wavelength converter with record 360 nm gain bandwidth and 50 dB signal gain," Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO) BaltimoreMD (2003) Paper CThPDB6.
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  19. P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Correction to noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2192 (2005).
  20. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).
  21. F. Yaman, Q. Lin, S. Radic, G. P. Agrawal, "Pump-noise transfer in dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers: Walk-off effects ," Opt. Lett. 30, 1048-1050 (2005).
  22. P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Noise figure characterisation of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Proc. ECOC (2003) Paper We2.3.5 pp. 404-405.
  23. A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, H. Maillotte, "Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1178-1180 (2005).
  24. P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise-figure in fiber optical parametric amplification ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1255-1257 (2006).
  25. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, M. G. Raymer, "Quantum noise properties of parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," Opt. Express 12, 5037-5066 (2004).
  26. A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2788-2795 (2005).
  27. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, "Optical amplification and signal processing in highly-nonlinear optical fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88C, 859-869 (2005).
  28. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).
  29. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Correction to parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 956 (2002).
  30. P. L. Voss, P. Kumar, "Raman-noise-induced noise-figure limit for χ(3) parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 29, 445-447 (2004).
  31. R. H. Stolen, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 1: Physical Principles (Springer-Verlag, 2003) pp. 35-60.
  32. R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, P. Kumar, "Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: Experimental investigation," Opt. Lett. 29, 2372-2374 (2004).
  33. P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, "Noise statistics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWT5.
  34. A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).
  35. P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Impact of phase modulation and filter characteristics on dual-pumped fiber-optical parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 439-441 (2006).
  36. Q. Lin, F. Yaman, S. Radic, G. P. Agrawal, "Fundamental noise limit in dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters ," Proc. CLEO (2005) Paper CTuT4 pp. 980-982.
  37. K. Inoue, T. Mukai, "Experimental study on noise characteristics of a gain-saturated fiber optical parametric amplifier ," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 969-974 (2001).
  38. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, "Continuous wave fiber parametric amplifier with 41.5 nm of flat gain," Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) Conf. AnaheimCA (2004) Paper TuC4.

2006 (3)

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Quantum noise limits on optical monitoring with parametric devices," Opt. Commun. 259, 309-320 (2006).

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise-figure in fiber optical parametric amplification ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1255-1257 (2006).

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Impact of phase modulation and filter characteristics on dual-pumped fiber-optical parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 439-441 (2006).

2005 (7)

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Correction to noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2192 (2005).

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, H. Maillotte, "Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1178-1180 (2005).

F. Yaman, Q. Lin, S. Radic, G. P. Agrawal, "Pump-noise transfer in dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers: Walk-off effects ," Opt. Lett. 30, 1048-1050 (2005).

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-Gbs optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinearity-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2012-2022 (2005).

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2788-2795 (2005).

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, "Optical amplification and signal processing in highly-nonlinear optical fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88C, 859-869 (2005).

2004 (5)

P. L. Voss, P. Kumar, "Raman-noise-induced noise-figure limit for χ(3) parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 29, 445-447 (2004).

R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, P. Kumar, "Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: Experimental investigation," Opt. Lett. 29, 2372-2374 (2004).

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, M. G. Raymer, "Quantum noise properties of parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," Opt. Express 12, 5037-5066 (2004).

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 409-416 (2004).

A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one- and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 957-959 (2003).

2002 (3)

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Correction to parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 956 (2002).

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Lie, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).

2001 (4)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194-196 (2001).

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P.-O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, "300-Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 987-989 (2001).

K. Inoue, T. Mukai, "Experimental study on noise characteristics of a gain-saturated fiber optical parametric amplifier ," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 969-974 (2001).

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifiers ," Electron. Lett. 36, 1016-1017 (2000).

1999 (1)

E. Desurvire, "On the physical origin of the 3-dB noise figure limit in laser and parametric optical amplifiers ," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 40-61 (1999).

1997 (1)

T. Yamamoto, M. Nakazawa, "Active optical pulse compression with a gain of 29.0 dB by using four-wave mixing in an optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1595-1597 (1997).

1996 (1)

P.-O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, "Demonstration of fibre four-wave mixing optical demultiplexing with 19 dB parametric amplification ," Electron. Lett. 32, 830-831 (1996).

1991 (1)

G. Cappellini, S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: Exact solution and spatial instability effects," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 8, 824-838 (1991).

1989 (1)

Y. Yamamoto, T. Mukai, "Fundamentals of optical amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S1-S14 (1989).

1982 (1)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1062-1072 (1982).

Electron. Lett. (2)

P.-O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, "Demonstration of fibre four-wave mixing optical demultiplexing with 19 dB parametric amplification ," Electron. Lett. 32, 830-831 (1996).

K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifiers ," Electron. Lett. 36, 1016-1017 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1062-1072 (1982).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Lie, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Correction to parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 956 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, H. Maillotte, "Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1178-1180 (2005).

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise-figure in fiber optical parametric amplification ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1255-1257 (2006).

A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Impact of phase modulation and filter characteristics on dual-pumped fiber-optical parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 439-441 (2006).

T. Yamamoto, M. Nakazawa, "Active optical pulse compression with a gain of 29.0 dB by using four-wave mixing in an optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1595-1597 (1997).

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P.-O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, "300-Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 987-989 (2001).

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-Gbs optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194-196 (2001).

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one- and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 957-959 (2003).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, "Optical amplification and signal processing in highly-nonlinear optical fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88C, 859-869 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2788-2795 (2005).

K. Inoue, T. Mukai, "Experimental study on noise characteristics of a gain-saturated fiber optical parametric amplifier ," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 969-974 (2001).

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 409-416 (2004).

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Correction to noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2192 (2005).

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinearity-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2012-2022 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

G. Cappellini, S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: Exact solution and spatial instability effects," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 8, 824-838 (1991).

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Quantum noise limits on optical monitoring with parametric devices," Opt. Commun. 259, 309-320 (2006).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

E. Desurvire, "On the physical origin of the 3-dB noise figure limit in laser and parametric optical amplifiers ," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 40-61 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Yamamoto, T. Mukai, "Fundamentals of optical amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S1-S14 (1989).

Other (8)

R. H. Stolen, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 1: Physical Principles (Springer-Verlag, 2003) pp. 35-60.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, "Noise statistics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWT5.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, "Continuous wave fiber parametric amplifier with 41.5 nm of flat gain," Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) Conf. AnaheimCA (2004) Paper TuC4.

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, S. Radic, G. P. Agrawal, "Fundamental noise limit in dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters ," Proc. CLEO (2005) Paper CTuT4 pp. 980-982.

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Noise figure characterisation of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Proc. ECOC (2003) Paper We2.3.5 pp. 404-405.

K. K. Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, L. G. Kazovsky, "Fiber optical parametric amplifier and wavelength converter with record 360 nm gain bandwidth and 50 dB signal gain," Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO) BaltimoreMD (2003) Paper CThPDB6.

C. Yu, T. Luo, B. Zhang, Z. Pan, M. Adler, Y. Wang, J. E. McCeehan, A. E. Willner, "3R regeneration of a 40-Gb/s optical signal by optical parametric amplification in a highly-nonlinear fiber," Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OTu1.

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA (Academic, 1997) pp. 162-195.

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