Abstract

This paper presents a simple and effective security enhancement mechanism for spectral phase-encoded time spread (SPECTS) optical code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA) users against eavesdroppers tapping at the isolated single-user uplink stream. Traditional SPECTS O-CDMA users apply pseudorandom spectral phase codes to spread on–off keyed ultrashort optical pulses in time. Isolated single-user upstream transmission is prone to energy detection by eavesdroppers, even those without code knowledge. In addition, it has been shown that the use of a pair of (bright/dark) codes to represent binary data transmission is still susceptible to differential phase shift keying (DPSK) eavesdroppers without code knowledge. To remedy this security weakness, we introduce a new type of O-CDMA data modulation with memory. This new method not only effectively defeats DPSK eavesdropping but also can provide good detection performance for authorized users. We successfully demonstrate the concealment of information from DPSK eavesdroppers with different levels of modulation information.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).
  2. L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, J. Budin, "Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 573-575 (1995).
  3. P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, M. C. R. Carvalho, "Security system for optical communication signals with fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 13-16 (2002).
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  8. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in O-CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4228-4234 (2006).
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2006 (3)

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in O-CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4228-4234 (2006).

W. Cong, C. Yang, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Demonstration of 160- and 320-Gb/s SPECTS O-CDMA network testbeds," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1567-1569 (2006).

Y. Du, S. J. B. Yoo, Z. Ding, "Non-uniform spectral phase encoding in optical CDMA networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2505-2507 (2006).

2005 (4)

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA: A code-switching scheme," Electron. Lett. 41, 817-818 (2005).

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, V. J. Hernandez, K. Li, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "An eight-user, time-slotted SPECTS O-CDMA testbed: Demonstration and simulation," J. Lightw. Technol.—Special Issue Optical Networks 23, 3232-3240 (2005).

C. Ji, R. G. Broeke, Y. Du, J. Cao, N. Chubun, P. Bjeletich, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, R. Welty, C. Reinhardt, P. L. Stephan, S. J. B. Yoo, "Monolithically integrated InP based photonic chip development for O-CDMA systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 66-77 (2005).

T. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase- encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1652-1663 (2005).

2002 (2)

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).

P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, M. C. R. Carvalho, "Security system for optical communication signals with fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 13-16 (2002).

1998 (1)

H. P. Sardesai, C. C. Chang, A. M. Weiner, "A femtosecond code-division multiple-access communication system test bed," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1953-1964 (1998).

1995 (1)

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, J. Budin, "Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 573-575 (1995).

1969 (1)

J. Omura, "On the Viterbi decoding algorithm," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-15, 177-179 (1969).

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA: A code-switching scheme," Electron. Lett. 41, 817-818 (2005).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Ji, R. G. Broeke, Y. Du, J. Cao, N. Chubun, P. Bjeletich, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, R. Welty, C. Reinhardt, P. L. Stephan, S. J. B. Yoo, "Monolithically integrated InP based photonic chip development for O-CDMA systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 66-77 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

W. Cong, C. Yang, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Demonstration of 160- and 320-Gb/s SPECTS O-CDMA network testbeds," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1567-1569 (2006).

Y. Du, S. J. B. Yoo, Z. Ding, "Non-uniform spectral phase encoding in optical CDMA networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2505-2507 (2006).

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, J. Budin, "Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 573-575 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

J. Omura, "On the Viterbi decoding algorithm," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-15, 177-179 (1969).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, M. C. R. Carvalho, "Security system for optical communication signals with fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 13-16 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

T. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase- encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1652-1663 (2005).

H. P. Sardesai, C. C. Chang, A. M. Weiner, "A femtosecond code-division multiple-access communication system test bed," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1953-1964 (1998).

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in O-CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4228-4234 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.—Special Issue Optical Networks (1)

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, V. J. Hernandez, K. Li, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "An eight-user, time-slotted SPECTS O-CDMA testbed: Demonstration and simulation," J. Lightw. Technol.—Special Issue Optical Networks 23, 3232-3240 (2005).

Other (4)

Inphi Corp. Products 50712OR 50 Gbps OR/NOR/ AND/NAND http://www.inphi-corp.com/products/50713or.shtml.

R. Bellman, Dynamic Programming (Princeton Univ. Press, 1957).

Product Specification http://www.xlinks.com/bvdocs/ipcenter/data_sheet/verterbi.pdf.

F. Xue, Y. Du, S. J. B. Yoo, Z. Ding, "Security issues on spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA with phase-masking scheme," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OThT3.

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