Abstract

This paper assesses the regenerative properties of nonlinear semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-based optical regenerators cascaded in high-speed transmission networks. It is shown that the fundamental condition that must be ensured to maintain optimum and constant regenerative properties along a chain of concatenated nonlinear optical regenerators is that the extinction ratio at the input of each regenerator is kept constant. This condition determines an important requirement on the regenerator; signal reshaping and noise suppression must take place while performing the necessary extinction ratio enhancement to maintain cascadability. Starting from the SOA nonlinear transfer function, we derive the relationship between the extinction ratio enhancement and the noise suppression for different SOA-based gate configurations and assess their cascadability properties. This analysis is supported by experimental results of transmission with cascaded optical regeneration in a reconfigurable transmission network over transoceanic distances on standard fiber.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. M. Dueser, P. Bayvel, "Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture ," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 574-585 (2002).
  2. V. Mikhailov, R. I. Killey, S. Appathurai, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40 Gb/s transmission over standard fibre ," Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 189-195 (2003).
  3. Y. Kim, H. Jang, Y. Kim, J. Lee, D. Jang, J. Jeong, "Transmission performance of 10 Gbps 1550-nm transmitters using semiconductor optical amplifiers as booster amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 476-481 (2003).
  4. B. Puttnam, M. Dueser, P. Bayvel, "Experimental investigation of the signal degradation in WDM transmission through coherent crosstalk caused by a fast tunable SG-DBR laser," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper JWA30.
  5. P. Ohlén, E. Berglind, "Noise accumulation and BER estimates in concatenated nonlinear optoelectronic repeaters ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1479-1481 (2003).
  6. B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, B. Dagens, R. Brenot, L. Pierre, J. L. Moncelet, D. de la Grandiére, J. C. Remy, J. C. Bouley, B. Thedrez, O. Leclerc, "Low input power all-optical 3R regenerator based on SOA devices for 42.66 Gbit/s ULH WDM RZ transmissions with 23 dB span loss and all-EDFA amplification," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PD15-1.
  7. O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2779-2790 (2003).
  8. J. Mork, F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, "Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1479-1481 (2003).
  9. D. Wolfson, S. L. Danielsen, H. N. Poulsen, P. B. Hansen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Experimental and theoretical investigation of the regenerative capabilities of electrooptic and all-optical interferometric wavelength converters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1413-1415 (1998).
  10. S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. L. Pommerau, "Bit error rate assessment of 40 Gb/s all-optical polarisation independent wavelength converter ," Electron. Lett. 32, 1688-1690 (1996).
  11. M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, "Decision gate for all-optical data retiming using a semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror configuration," Electron. Lett. 29, 107 (1993).
  12. R. Manning, D. Davies, "Three-wavelength device for all-optical signal processing," Opt. Lett. 19, 889-891 (1994).
  13. G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).
  14. D. A. O. Davies, A. D. Ellis, G. Sherlock, "Regenerative 20 Gb/s wavelength conversion and demultiplexing using a semiconductor laser amplifier nonlinear loop mirror," Electron. Lett. 31, 1000-10 018 (1995).
  15. G. Gavioli, P. Bayvel, "Novel 3R regenerator based on polarisation switching in a semiconductor optical amplifier-assisted fiber Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1261-1263 (2003).
  16. J. Leuthold, B. Mikkelsen, R. E. Behringer, G. Raybon, C. H. Joyner, P. A. Besse, "Novel 3R regenerator based on semiconductor optical amplifier delayed-interference configuration ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 860-862 (2001).
  17. W. Idler, K. Daub, G. Laube, M. Schilling, P. Wiedemann, K. Dutting, M. Klenk, E. Lach, K. Wunstel, "10 Gb/s wavelength conversion with integrated multiquantum-well-based 3-port Mach–Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1163-1165 (1996).
  18. G. Gavioli, V. Mikhailov, B. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of transmission with cascaded all-optical 3R regenerators and variable inter- regenerator spacing," Electron. Lett. 41, 146-148 (2005).
  19. M. Nissov, J. X. Cai, A. N. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, N. S. Bergano, "Q-factor fluctuations in long distance circulating loop transmission experiments," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (22–27, 2004) Paper MF6.

2005 (1)

G. Gavioli, V. Mikhailov, B. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of transmission with cascaded all-optical 3R regenerators and variable inter- regenerator spacing," Electron. Lett. 41, 146-148 (2005).

2003 (6)

G. Gavioli, P. Bayvel, "Novel 3R regenerator based on polarisation switching in a semiconductor optical amplifier-assisted fiber Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1261-1263 (2003).

V. Mikhailov, R. I. Killey, S. Appathurai, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40 Gb/s transmission over standard fibre ," Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 189-195 (2003).

Y. Kim, H. Jang, Y. Kim, J. Lee, D. Jang, J. Jeong, "Transmission performance of 10 Gbps 1550-nm transmitters using semiconductor optical amplifiers as booster amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 476-481 (2003).

P. Ohlén, E. Berglind, "Noise accumulation and BER estimates in concatenated nonlinear optoelectronic repeaters ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1479-1481 (2003).

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2779-2790 (2003).

J. Mork, F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, "Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1479-1481 (2003).

2002 (1)

M. Dueser, P. Bayvel, "Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture ," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 574-585 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. Leuthold, B. Mikkelsen, R. E. Behringer, G. Raybon, C. H. Joyner, P. A. Besse, "Novel 3R regenerator based on semiconductor optical amplifier delayed-interference configuration ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 860-862 (2001).

1998 (1)

D. Wolfson, S. L. Danielsen, H. N. Poulsen, P. B. Hansen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Experimental and theoretical investigation of the regenerative capabilities of electrooptic and all-optical interferometric wavelength converters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1413-1415 (1998).

1996 (2)

S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. L. Pommerau, "Bit error rate assessment of 40 Gb/s all-optical polarisation independent wavelength converter ," Electron. Lett. 32, 1688-1690 (1996).

W. Idler, K. Daub, G. Laube, M. Schilling, P. Wiedemann, K. Dutting, M. Klenk, E. Lach, K. Wunstel, "10 Gb/s wavelength conversion with integrated multiquantum-well-based 3-port Mach–Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1163-1165 (1996).

1995 (1)

D. A. O. Davies, A. D. Ellis, G. Sherlock, "Regenerative 20 Gb/s wavelength conversion and demultiplexing using a semiconductor laser amplifier nonlinear loop mirror," Electron. Lett. 31, 1000-10 018 (1995).

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, "Decision gate for all-optical data retiming using a semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror configuration," Electron. Lett. 29, 107 (1993).

1989 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

Electron. Lett. (4)

D. A. O. Davies, A. D. Ellis, G. Sherlock, "Regenerative 20 Gb/s wavelength conversion and demultiplexing using a semiconductor laser amplifier nonlinear loop mirror," Electron. Lett. 31, 1000-10 018 (1995).

S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. L. Pommerau, "Bit error rate assessment of 40 Gb/s all-optical polarisation independent wavelength converter ," Electron. Lett. 32, 1688-1690 (1996).

M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, "Decision gate for all-optical data retiming using a semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror configuration," Electron. Lett. 29, 107 (1993).

G. Gavioli, V. Mikhailov, B. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of transmission with cascaded all-optical 3R regenerators and variable inter- regenerator spacing," Electron. Lett. 41, 146-148 (2005).

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

V. Mikhailov, R. I. Killey, S. Appathurai, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40 Gb/s transmission over standard fibre ," Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 189-195 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

P. Ohlén, E. Berglind, "Noise accumulation and BER estimates in concatenated nonlinear optoelectronic repeaters ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1479-1481 (2003).

J. Mork, F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, "Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1479-1481 (2003).

D. Wolfson, S. L. Danielsen, H. N. Poulsen, P. B. Hansen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Experimental and theoretical investigation of the regenerative capabilities of electrooptic and all-optical interferometric wavelength converters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1413-1415 (1998).

G. Gavioli, P. Bayvel, "Novel 3R regenerator based on polarisation switching in a semiconductor optical amplifier-assisted fiber Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1261-1263 (2003).

J. Leuthold, B. Mikkelsen, R. E. Behringer, G. Raybon, C. H. Joyner, P. A. Besse, "Novel 3R regenerator based on semiconductor optical amplifier delayed-interference configuration ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 860-862 (2001).

W. Idler, K. Daub, G. Laube, M. Schilling, P. Wiedemann, K. Dutting, M. Klenk, E. Lach, K. Wunstel, "10 Gb/s wavelength conversion with integrated multiquantum-well-based 3-port Mach–Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1163-1165 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

M. Dueser, P. Bayvel, "Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture ," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 574-585 (2002).

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2779-2790 (2003).

Y. Kim, H. Jang, Y. Kim, J. Lee, D. Jang, J. Jeong, "Transmission performance of 10 Gbps 1550-nm transmitters using semiconductor optical amplifiers as booster amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 476-481 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

M. Nissov, J. X. Cai, A. N. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, N. S. Bergano, "Q-factor fluctuations in long distance circulating loop transmission experiments," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (22–27, 2004) Paper MF6.

B. Puttnam, M. Dueser, P. Bayvel, "Experimental investigation of the signal degradation in WDM transmission through coherent crosstalk caused by a fast tunable SG-DBR laser," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper JWA30.

B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, B. Dagens, R. Brenot, L. Pierre, J. L. Moncelet, D. de la Grandiére, J. C. Remy, J. C. Bouley, B. Thedrez, O. Leclerc, "Low input power all-optical 3R regenerator based on SOA devices for 42.66 Gbit/s ULH WDM RZ transmissions with 23 dB span loss and all-EDFA amplification," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PD15-1.

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