Abstract

We design and investigate plasmon waveguides based on linear arrays of Au nanorings in an SiO<sub>2</sub> host for use in an optical communication band (λ ~ 1550 nm). Nanoring particles have better tunability and can achieve more laterally compact waveguides, compared to their solid counterparts, such as nanospheres and nanodisks. Three-dimensional simulations employing the finite-difference time-domain algorithm are used to determine the set of geometrical parameters attaining localized surface plasmon resonance at 1550 nm. It is found out that, in the SiO<sub>2</sub> host, Au nanorings attain LSPR at 1550 nm with a 175-nm inner diameter, a 35-nm height, and a 30-nm thickness. It is shown that linear chains of Au nanorings can transport the electromagnetic energy at 1550 nm, with transmission losses γ<i>T</i> = 3 dB/655 nm and γ<i>L</i> = 3 dB/443 nm and group velocities v<sub>gT</sub> = 0.177c<sub>0</sub> and v<sub>gL</sub> = 0.327c<sub>0</sub> for transverse and longitudinal polarizations, respectively, where c<sub>0</sub> is the speed of light in a vacuum.

© 2007 IEEE

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2007 (1)

K.-Y. Jung, F. L. Teixeira, "Multispecies ADI-FDTD algorithm for nanoscale three-dimensional photonic metallic structures ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 586-588 (2007).

2006 (1)

K.-Y. Jung, B. Donderici, F. L. Teixeira, "Transient analysis of spectrally asymmetric magnetic photonic crystals with ferromagnetic losses ," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 74, 165 207 (2006).

2005 (6)

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, "Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes," Nano Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).

S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, "Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films," Opt. Express 13, 3150-3165 (2005).

G. Veronis, S. Fan, "Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1102 (2005).

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, M. L. de la Chapelle, "Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 71, 085 416 (2005).

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, A. Polman, "Highly confined electromagnetic field in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles ," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 71, 235 408 (2005).

J. J. Xiao, J. P. Huang, K. W. Yu, "Optical response of strongly coupled metal nanoparticles in dimer arrays," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 71, 045 404 (2005).

2004 (5)

S. Y. Park, D. Stroud, "Surface-plasmon dispersion relations in chains of metallic nanoparticles: An exact quasistatic calculation," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 69, 125 418 (2004).

C. Girard, R. Quidant, "Near-field optical transmittance of metal particle chain waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 6141-6146 (2004).

C. Oubre, P. Nordlander, "Optical properties of metallodielectric nanostructures calculated using the finite difference time domain method," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 17 740-17 747 (2004).

S. Wang, F. L. Teixeira, "Lattice models for large-scale simulations of coherent wave scattering," Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 69, 016 701 (2004).

E. Becache, P. G. Petropoulos, S. D. Gedney, "On the long-time behavior of unsplit perfectly matched layers," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 1335-1342 (2004).

2003 (9)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).

S. K. Gray, T. Kupka, "Propagation of light in metallic nanowire arrays: Finite-difference time-domain studies of silver cylinders," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 68, 045 415 (2003).

E. Prodan, P. Nordlander, "Structural tunability of the plasmon resonances in metallic nanoshells," Nano Lett. 3, 543-547 (2003).

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, "A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures," Science 302, 419-422 (2003).

W. A. Challener, I. K. Sendur, C. Peng, "Scattered field formulation of finite difference time domain for a focused light beam in dense media with lossy materials," Opt. Express 11, 3160-3170 (2003).

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057 401 (2003).

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, "Optical pulse propagation in metal nanoparticle chain waveguides," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 67, 205 402 (2003).

J.-M. Nam, C. S. Thaxton, C. A. Mirkin, "Nanoparticle-based bio-bar codes for the ultrasensitive detection of proteins," Science 301, 1884-1886 (2003).

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles ," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).

2002 (2)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, "Observation of near-field coupling in metal nanoparticle chains using far-field polarization spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 65, 193 408 (2002).

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, "Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes in Au nanoparticle chain waveguide of different lengths: Estimation of waveguide loss," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1714-1716 (2002).

2001 (2)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics—A route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

J. B. Jackson, N. J. Halas, "Silver nanoshells: Variations in morphologies and optical properties," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2743-2746 (2001).

2000 (5)

M. Rajarajan, S. Obayya, B. Rahman, K. Grattan, H. El-Mikati, "Characterisation of low-loss waveguide bends with offset-optimisation for compact photonic integrated circuits," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.—Optoelectron. 147, 382-388 (2000).

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 62, R16 356-R16 359 (2000).

R. M. Stockle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, "Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 131-136 (2000).

J. A. Roden, S. D. Gedney, "Convolution PML (CPML): An efficient FDTD implementation of the CFS-PML for arbitrary media ," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 27, 334-339 (2000).

F. L. Teixeira, W. C. Chew, "Finite-difference computation of transient electromagnetic waves for cylindrical geometries in complex media," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 1530-1543 (2000).

1999 (3)

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, L. Börjesson, "Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4357-4360 (1999).

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles ," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).

S. J. Oldenburg, J. B. Jackson, S. L. Westcott, N. J. Halas, "Infrared extinction properties of gold nanoshells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2897-2899 (1999).

1998 (3)

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, "Electromagnetic energy transport via linear chains of silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 23, 1331-1333 (1998).

F. L. Teixeira, W. C. Chew, "Analytical derivation of a conformal perfectly matched absorber for electromagnetic waves ," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 17, 231-236 (1998).

F. L. Teixeira, W. C. Chew, "A general approach to extend Berenger's absorbing boundary condition to anisotropic and dispersive media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1386-1387 (1998).

1997 (2)

F. L. Teixeira, W. C. Chew, "Systematic derivation of anisotropic PML absorbing media in cylindrical and spherical coordinates ," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 7, 371-373 (1997).

S. Nie, S. R. Emory, "Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering ," Science 275, 1102-1106 (1997).

1996 (2)

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).

M. Kuzuoglu, R. Mittra, "Frequency dependence of the constitutive parameters of causal perfectly matched anisotropic absorbers," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 6, 447-449 (1996).

1994 (2)

W. M. Chew, W. H. Weedon, "A 3D perfectly matched medium from modified Maxwell's equations with stretched coordinates ," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 7, 599-604 (1994).

H. Heinzelmann, D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. A, Solids Surf. 59, 89-101 (1994).

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics—A route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

Appl. Phys. A, Solids Surf. (1)

H. Heinzelmann, D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. A, Solids Surf. 59, 89-101 (1994).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, "Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes in Au nanoparticle chain waveguide of different lengths: Estimation of waveguide loss," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1714-1716 (2002).

S. J. Oldenburg, J. B. Jackson, S. L. Westcott, N. J. Halas, "Infrared extinction properties of gold nanoshells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2897-2899 (1999).

G. Veronis, S. Fan, "Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1102 (2005).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. M. Stockle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, "Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 131-136 (2000).

IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. (2)

F. L. Teixeira, W. C. Chew, "Systematic derivation of anisotropic PML absorbing media in cylindrical and spherical coordinates ," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 7, 371-373 (1997).

M. Kuzuoglu, R. Mittra, "Frequency dependence of the constitutive parameters of causal perfectly matched anisotropic absorbers," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 6, 447-449 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K.-Y. Jung, F. L. Teixeira, "Multispecies ADI-FDTD algorithm for nanoscale three-dimensional photonic metallic structures ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 586-588 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

F. L. Teixeira, W. C. Chew, "A general approach to extend Berenger's absorbing boundary condition to anisotropic and dispersive media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1386-1387 (1998).

E. Becache, P. G. Petropoulos, S. D. Gedney, "On the long-time behavior of unsplit perfectly matched layers," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 1335-1342 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

F. L. Teixeira, W. C. Chew, "Finite-difference computation of transient electromagnetic waves for cylindrical geometries in complex media," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 1530-1543 (2000).

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

C. Oubre, P. Nordlander, "Optical properties of metallodielectric nanostructures calculated using the finite difference time domain method," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 17 740-17 747 (2004).

J. B. Jackson, N. J. Halas, "Silver nanoshells: Variations in morphologies and optical properties," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2743-2746 (2001).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (3)

W. M. Chew, W. H. Weedon, "A 3D perfectly matched medium from modified Maxwell's equations with stretched coordinates ," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 7, 599-604 (1994).

F. L. Teixeira, W. C. Chew, "Analytical derivation of a conformal perfectly matched absorber for electromagnetic waves ," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 17, 231-236 (1998).

J. A. Roden, S. D. Gedney, "Convolution PML (CPML): An efficient FDTD implementation of the CFS-PML for arbitrary media ," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 27, 334-339 (2000).

Nano Lett. (3)

E. Prodan, P. Nordlander, "Structural tunability of the plasmon resonances in metallic nanoshells," Nano Lett. 3, 543-547 (2003).

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, "Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes," Nano Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles ," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter (10)

J. J. Xiao, J. P. Huang, K. W. Yu, "Optical response of strongly coupled metal nanoparticles in dimer arrays," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 71, 045 404 (2005).

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, "Optical pulse propagation in metal nanoparticle chain waveguides," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 67, 205 402 (2003).

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, "Observation of near-field coupling in metal nanoparticle chains using far-field polarization spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 65, 193 408 (2002).

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, M. L. de la Chapelle, "Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 71, 085 416 (2005).

S. K. Gray, T. Kupka, "Propagation of light in metallic nanowire arrays: Finite-difference time-domain studies of silver cylinders," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 68, 045 415 (2003).

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, A. Polman, "Highly confined electromagnetic field in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles ," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 71, 235 408 (2005).

S. Y. Park, D. Stroud, "Surface-plasmon dispersion relations in chains of metallic nanoparticles: An exact quasistatic calculation," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 69, 125 418 (2004).

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 62, R16 356-R16 359 (2000).

K.-Y. Jung, B. Donderici, F. L. Teixeira, "Transient analysis of spectrally asymmetric magnetic photonic crystals with ferromagnetic losses ," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 74, 165 207 (2006).

Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top. (1)

S. Wang, F. L. Teixeira, "Lattice models for large-scale simulations of coherent wave scattering," Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 69, 016 701 (2004).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057 401 (2003).

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles ," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).

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