Abstract

A novel class of optical waveguides with a box-shaped cross section consisting of a low-index inner material surrounded by a thin high-index coating layer is presented. This original multilayered structure widens the traditional concept of index contrast for dielectric waveguides toward a more general concept of effective index contrast, which can be artificially tailored over a continuous range by properly choosing the thickness of the outer high-index layers. An electromagnetic analysis is reported, which shows that the transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes are spatially confined in different regions of the cross section and exhibit an almost 90° rotational symmetry. Such unusual field distribution is demonstrated to open the way to new intriguing properties with respect to conventional waveguides. Design criteria are provided into details, which mainly focus on the polarization dependence of the waveguide on geometrical parameters. The possibility of achieving single-mode waveguides with either zero or high birefringence is discussed, and the bending capabilities are compared to conventional waveguides. The feasibility of the proposed waveguide is demonstrated by the realization of prototypal samples that are fabricated by using the emerging CMOS-compatible Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>–SiO<sub>2</sub> TriPleX technology. An exhaustiveexperimental characterization is reported, which shows propagation loss as low as state-of-the-art low-index-contrast waveguides (< 0.1 dB/cm) together with enhanced flexibility in the optimization of polarization sensitivity and confirms the high potentialities of the proposed waveguides for large-scale integrated optics.

© 2007 IEEE

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  19. Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
  20. Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Douan, L. C. Kimerling, "On-chip Si-based Bragg cladding waveguide with high index contrast bilayers," Opt. Express 12, 4775-4780 (2004).
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  22. D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Low-loss integrated optical sensors based on hollow-core ARROW waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5730, 218-225 (2005).
  23. M. G. Hussein, K. Wörhoff, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, "Optimization of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride layers for integrated optics applications," Thin Solid Films 515, 3779-3786 (2006).
  24. Fimmwave Version 4.4 (2005)Photon DesignOxfordU.K. http://www.photond.com/products/fimmwave.htm.
  25. D. Marcuse, "The coupling of degenerate modes in two parallel dielectric waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 1791-1816 (1971).
  26. K. Wörhoff, P. V. Lambeck, A. Driessen, "Tolerance analysis, and fabrication of silicon oxynitride based planar optical waveguides for communication devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1401-1407 (1999).
  27. B. Little, "A VLSI photonics platform," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003) pp. 444-445.
  28. F. Morichetti, R. Costa, A. Melloni, R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, A. Borreman, A. Leinse, "High index-contrast multi-layer waveguides," Proc. 15th Workshop Opt. Waveguide Theory and Numerical Model. (2006).
  29. LioniX BV7500 AH EnschedeThe Netherlands http://www.lionixbv.nl/.
  30. R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, Low modal birefringent waveguides and method of fabrication U.S. Patent 7 146 087 B2 (2006).
  31. R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, Surface waveguide and method of manufacture U.S. Patent 7 142 759 B2 (2006).
  32. C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, W. van Etten, "Ring resonator-based tunable optical delay line in LPCVD waveguide technology," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, 10th Symp. (2005) pp. 71.
  33. A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, W. C. van Etten, "Phased array antenna steering using a ring resonator-based optical beam forming network ," Proc. IEEE/CVT Benelux Chapter, 13th Symp. (2006) pp. 7-12.
  34. L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. C. van Etten, "Ring resonator-based single-chip 1x8 optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, 11th Symp. (2006) pp. 45-48.
  35. L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. van Etten, "Single-chip ring resonator-based 1 x 8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1130-1132 (2007).
  36. A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, "Direct observation of subluminal and superluminal velocity swinging in coupled mode optical propagation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 173 902 (2007).
  37. M. Ferrario, Local birefringence in optical waveguides Ph.D. dissertation Politecnico di MilanoMilanItaly (2007).

2007 (2)

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. van Etten, "Single-chip ring resonator-based 1 x 8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1130-1132 (2007).

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, "Direct observation of subluminal and superluminal velocity swinging in coupled mode optical propagation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 173 902 (2007).

2006 (5)

M. G. Hussein, K. Wörhoff, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, "Optimization of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride layers for integrated optics applications," Thin Solid Films 515, 3779-3786 (2006).

C. R. Doerr, K. Okamoto, "Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4763-4789 (2006).

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

S. Zheng, H. Chen, A. W. Poon, "Microring-resonator cross-connect filters in silicon nitride: Rib waveguide dimensions dependence ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 21380-1387 (2006).

2005 (5)

W. Tzyy-Jiann, H. Yen-Hao, C. Hsuen-Li, "Resonant-wavelength tuning of microring filters by oxygen plasma treatment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 582-584 (2005).

M. J. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, C. T. Sullivan, "Fabrication techniques for low-loss silicon nitride waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5720, 109-118 (2005).

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, "Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121 111 (2005).

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Waveguide loss optimization in hollow-core ARROW waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 9331-9336 (2005).

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Low-loss integrated optical sensors based on hollow-core ARROW waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5730, 218-225 (2005).

2004 (3)

Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Douan, L. C. Kimerling, "On-chip Si-based Bragg cladding waveguide with high index contrast bilayers," Opt. Express 12, 4775-4780 (2004).

D. Yin, H. Schmidt, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, "Integrated ARROW waveguide with hollow cores," Opt. Express 12, 2710-2715 (2004).

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, L. Pavesi, "Comparison among various Si3N4 waveguide geometries grown within a CMOS fabrication pilot line," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1734-1740 (2004).

1999 (1)

K. Wörhoff, P. V. Lambeck, A. Driessen, "Tolerance analysis, and fabrication of silicon oxynitride based planar optical waveguides for communication devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1401-1407 (1999).

1998 (1)

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).

1991 (1)

G. N. de Brabander, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jakson, "Single polarization optical waveguide on silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 575-579 (1991).

1986 (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).

1977 (2)

A. Y. Cho, A. Yariv, P. Yeh, "Observation of confined propagation in Bragg waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 471-472 (1977).

W. Stutius, W. Streifer, "Silicon nitride films on silicon for optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 16, 3218-3222 (1977).

1971 (1)

D. Marcuse, "The coupling of degenerate modes in two parallel dielectric waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 1791-1816 (1971).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, "Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121 111 (2005).

A. Y. Cho, A. Yariv, P. Yeh, "Observation of confined propagation in Bragg waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 471-472 (1977).

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, "The coupling of degenerate modes in two parallel dielectric waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 1791-1816 (1971).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. N. de Brabander, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jakson, "Single polarization optical waveguide on silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 575-579 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

S. Zheng, H. Chen, A. W. Poon, "Microring-resonator cross-connect filters in silicon nitride: Rib waveguide dimensions dependence ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 21380-1387 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

W. Tzyy-Jiann, H. Yen-Hao, C. Hsuen-Li, "Resonant-wavelength tuning of microring filters by oxygen plasma treatment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 582-584 (2005).

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. van Etten, "Single-chip ring resonator-based 1 x 8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1130-1132 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

K. Wörhoff, P. V. Lambeck, A. Driessen, "Tolerance analysis, and fabrication of silicon oxynitride based planar optical waveguides for communication devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1401-1407 (1999).

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, L. Pavesi, "Comparison among various Si3N4 waveguide geometries grown within a CMOS fabrication pilot line," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1734-1740 (2004).

C. R. Doerr, K. Okamoto, "Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4763-4789 (2006).

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, "Direct observation of subluminal and superluminal velocity swinging in coupled mode optical propagation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 173 902 (2007).

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Low-loss integrated optical sensors based on hollow-core ARROW waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5730, 218-225 (2005).

M. J. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, C. T. Sullivan, "Fabrication techniques for low-loss silicon nitride waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5720, 109-118 (2005).

Science (1)

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. G. Hussein, K. Wörhoff, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, "Optimization of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride layers for integrated optics applications," Thin Solid Films 515, 3779-3786 (2006).

Other (15)

Fimmwave Version 4.4 (2005)Photon DesignOxfordU.K. http://www.photond.com/products/fimmwave.htm.

M. Ferrario, Local birefringence in optical waveguides Ph.D. dissertation Politecnico di MilanoMilanItaly (2007).

V. I. Belyi, L. L. Vasilyeva, A. S. Ginovker, V. A. Gritsenko, S. M. Repinsky, S. P. Sinitsa, T. P. Smirnova, F. L. Edelman, Silicon Nitride in Electronics (Elsevier, 1988).

B. Little, "A VLSI photonics platform," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003) pp. 444-445.

F. Morichetti, R. Costa, A. Melloni, R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, A. Borreman, A. Leinse, "High index-contrast multi-layer waveguides," Proc. 15th Workshop Opt. Waveguide Theory and Numerical Model. (2006).

LioniX BV7500 AH EnschedeThe Netherlands http://www.lionixbv.nl/.

R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, Low modal birefringent waveguides and method of fabrication U.S. Patent 7 146 087 B2 (2006).

R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, Surface waveguide and method of manufacture U.S. Patent 7 142 759 B2 (2006).

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, W. van Etten, "Ring resonator-based tunable optical delay line in LPCVD waveguide technology," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, 10th Symp. (2005) pp. 71.

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, W. C. van Etten, "Phased array antenna steering using a ring resonator-based optical beam forming network ," Proc. IEEE/CVT Benelux Chapter, 13th Symp. (2006) pp. 7-12.

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. C. van Etten, "Ring resonator-based single-chip 1x8 optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, 11th Symp. (2006) pp. 45-48.

R. G. Heideman, A. Melloni, M. Hoekman, A. Leinse, F. Morichetti, "Low loss, high contrast optical waveguides based on CMOS compatible LPCVD processing: Technology and experimental results," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, 10th Annu. Symp. (2005).

J. A. Walker, R. G. Heideman, "Surface waveguide technology for telecom and biochemical sensing applications," Proc. SPIE Int. Symp. Integr. Optoelectron. Devices (2006).

R. G. Heideman, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Leinse, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, W. van Etten, E. Klein, A. Driessen, "Low loss, high contrast optical waveguides based on CMOS compatible LPCVD processing ," 13th Eur. Conf. Integrated Optics (ECIO) CopenhagenDenmark (2007) Paper WB0.

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, R. Costa, G. Cusmai, R. G. Heideman, R. Mateman, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Borreman, "TriPleX: A new concept in optical waveguiding," 13th Eur. Conf. Integrated Optics (ECIO) CopenhagenDenmark (2007) Paper ThA3.

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