Abstract

A new experimental method in the microwave regime is introduced to verify the performance of guided-wave photonic devices with high-index contrast. In particular, a novel broadband slow-light or high-dispersion photonic-crystal (PC) waveguide (WG) is studied. By scaling up the structure dimensions, the equivalent fabrication uncertainty can be reduced to 0.5 nm, which, in combination with the available microwave equipment, allows the conduction of reference measurements with a precision that is not possible in optics. Based on these experiments, several numerical band calculation methods for designing the PC-WGs are evaluated, and out of three accurate methods, we identify a fast tool. Furthermore, we check the accuracy of PC device simulations with the finite integration technique using the aforementioned PC-WG. We demonstrate that the device exhibits a region with a low group velocity of 4% of the vacuum speed of light and a region with a high chromatic dispersion of 4 ps/(mm · nm), both in a 1-THz bandwidth. For the first time, we quantify by experiments that a random disorder of the hole radii by 5%, which can be caused by fabrication imperfections, does not significantly degrade the group velocity behavior.

© 2007 IEEE

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2007 (1)

2006 (3)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Sigri, A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).

L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, J. Fage-Pedersen, P. I. Borel, "Photonic crystal waveguides with semi-slow light and tailored dispersion properties ," Opt. Express 14, 9444-9450 (2006).

Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab, "Coupling into the slow light mode in slab-type photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 50-52 (2006).

2005 (8)

D. Mori, T. Baba, "Wideband and low dispersion slow light by chirped photonic crystal coupled waveguide ," Opt. Express 13, 9398-9408 (2005).

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, L. Ramunno, "Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs ," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 72, 161 318 (2005).

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, "Fast bistable all-optical switch and memory on a silicon photonic crystal on-chip," Opt. Lett. 30, 2575-2577 (2005).

R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).

A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, "Dispersion compensation with photonic crystal line-defect waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1396-1401 (2005).

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153 901 (2005).

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073 903 (2005).

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).

2004 (8)

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, T. F. Krauss, "Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 514-519 (2004).

M. Soljačić, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 3, 211-219 (2004).

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals ," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127 401 (2004).

Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, S. G. Johnson, "Group velocity dependence of propagation losses in single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguides on GaAs membranes," Electron. Lett. 40, 174-176 (2004).

M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, "Effect of a photonic band gap on scattering from waveguide disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3639-3641 (2004).

D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, "Disorder-induced losses in photonic crystal waveguides with line defects," Opt. Lett. 29, 1897-1899 (2004).

A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, "Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866-4868 (2004).

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, S. Fan, "Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233 903 (2004).

2003 (3)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).

D. R. Solli, C. F. McCormick, R. Y. Chiao, J. M. Hickmann, "Experimental demonstration of photonic crystal waveplates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1036-1038 (2003).

F. Cuesta, A. Griol, A. Martinez, J. Marti, "Experimental demonstration of photonic crystal directional coupler at microwave frequencies ," Electron. Lett. 39, 455-456 (2003).

2002 (1)

E. Ozbay, M. Bayindir, I. Bulu, E. Cubukcu, "Investigation of localized coupled-cavity modes in two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 837-843 (2002).

2001 (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs ," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253 902 (2001).

2000 (2)

C. Jin, B. Cheng, B. Man, Z. Li, D. Zhang, "Two-dimensional dodecagonal and decagonal quasiperiodic photonic crystals in the microwave region ," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 61, 10 762-10 767 (2000).

A. A. Chabanov, M. Stoytchev, A. Z. Genack, "Statistical signatures of photon localization," Nature 404, 850-853 (2000).

1991 (1)

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzmann, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, S. Schultz, "Microwave propagation in two-dimensional dielectric lattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017-2020 (1991).

1989 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, "Photonic band structure: The face-centered-cubic case," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1950-1953 (1989).

1979 (1)

G. F. Engen, C. A. Hoer, "Thru-reflect-line: An improved technique for calibrating the dual six-port automatic network analyzer," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 27, 987-993 (1979).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. R. Solli, C. F. McCormick, R. Y. Chiao, J. M. Hickmann, "Experimental demonstration of photonic crystal waveplates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1036-1038 (2003).

A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, "Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866-4868 (2004).

M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, "Effect of a photonic band gap on scattering from waveguide disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3639-3641 (2004).

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, S. G. Johnson, "Group velocity dependence of propagation losses in single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguides on GaAs membranes," Electron. Lett. 40, 174-176 (2004).

F. Cuesta, A. Griol, A. Martinez, J. Marti, "Experimental demonstration of photonic crystal directional coupler at microwave frequencies ," Electron. Lett. 39, 455-456 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Ozbay, M. Bayindir, I. Bulu, E. Cubukcu, "Investigation of localized coupled-cavity modes in two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 837-843 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, "Dispersion compensation with photonic crystal line-defect waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1396-1401 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

G. F. Engen, C. A. Hoer, "Thru-reflect-line: An improved technique for calibrating the dual six-port automatic network analyzer," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 27, 987-993 (1979).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, T. F. Krauss, "Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 514-519 (2004).

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Soljačić, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 3, 211-219 (2004).

Nature (4)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Sigri, A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).

A. A. Chabanov, M. Stoytchev, A. Z. Genack, "Statistical signatures of photon localization," Nature 404, 850-853 (2000).

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter (2)

C. Jin, B. Cheng, B. Man, Z. Li, D. Zhang, "Two-dimensional dodecagonal and decagonal quasiperiodic photonic crystals in the microwave region ," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 61, 10 762-10 767 (2000).

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, L. Ramunno, "Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs ," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 72, 161 318 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073 903 (2005).

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, S. Fan, "Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233 903 (2004).

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs ," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253 902 (2001).

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals ," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127 401 (2004).

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153 901 (2005).

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, "Photonic band structure: The face-centered-cubic case," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1950-1953 (1989).

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzmann, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, S. Schultz, "Microwave propagation in two-dimensional dielectric lattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017-2020 (1991).

Science (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).

Other (4)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).

W. Freude, G. A. Chakam, J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, Photonic Crystals—Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization (Wiley-VCH, 2004) pp. 198-214.

http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/MIT_Photonic_Bands.

http://fisicavolta.unipv.it/dipartimento/ricerca/Fotonici/.

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