Abstract

The two-photon absorption (TPA), the free-carrier absorption (FCA), and the carrier plasma effect play important roles in Si-based photonic devices. These effects have been incorporated directly into a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulator for the first time. To check the validity of the FDTD simulator, it has been applied to the simulation of nonlinear transmission of an ultrashort optical pulse in a short Si high-index-contrast waveguide. The results are consistent with those shown in the literature. The cause of the slight negative slope transmission has been explained as follows. Since the TPA-induced FCA makes the pulse-shape asymmetric, a pulse with a higher optical input intensity tends to have a longer tail. Therefore, a stronger optical pulse is subject to FCA for a longer period, resulting in the negative differential transmission.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon—Challenges and opportunities ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4238 (2005).
  2. B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, G. Reed, "Silicon photonics," IEEE Microw. Mag. 7, 58-68 (2006).
  3. P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides ," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589-6602 (2006).
  4. K. Wada, D. H. Ahn, D. R. Lim, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Si microphotonics for optical interconnection," Thin Solid Films 508, 418-421 (2006).
  5. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, "Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
  6. T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, K. Ohashi, "Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364-L366 (2005).
  7. G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, J. F. Young, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 µm pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
  8. A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, J. F. Young, "Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures," Opt. Express 12, 1611-1621 (2004).
  9. H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6541-6545 (2005).
  10. E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 5524-5534 (2006).
  11. I.-W. Hsieh, X. G. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr.S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides ," Opt. Express 14, 12 380-12 387 (2006).
  12. O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).
  13. R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr.S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341-4349 (2005).
  14. H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).
  15. T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. R. A. Priem, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, H. K. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides ," Opt. Express 13, 7298-7303 (2005).
  16. R. Dekker, A. Driessen, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, J. Niehusmann, M. Först, "Ultrafast Kerr-induced all-optical wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using 1.55 µm femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 14, 8336-8346 (2006).
  17. Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, "Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 11 721-11 726 (2006).
  18. K. K. Tsia, S. Fathpour, B. Jalali, "Energy harvesting in silicon wavelength converters," Opt. Express 14, 12 327-12 333 (2006).
  19. O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, B. Jalali, "Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 829-834 (2004).
  20. X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
  21. X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Third-order dispersion and ultrafast-pulse propagation in silicon wire waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2617-2619 (2006).
  22. I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr.S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 1135-1146 (2007).
  23. P. M. Goorjian, A. Taflove, R. M. Joseph, S. C. Hagness, "Computational modeling of femtosecond optical solitons from Maxwell's equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2416-2422 (1992).
  24. R. W. Ziolkowski, J. B. Judkins, "Full-wave vector Maxwell equation modeling of the self-focusing of ultrashort optical pulses in a nonlinear Kerr medium exhibiting a finite response time," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 10, 186-198 (1993).
  25. R. M. Joseph, P. M. Goorjian, A. Taflove, "Direct time integration of Maxwell's equations in two-dimensional dielectric waveguides for propagation and scattering of femtosecond electromagnetic solitons," Opt. Lett. 18, 491-493 (1993).
  26. R. M. Joseph, A. Taflove, "Spatial soliton deflection mechanism indicated by FD-TD Maxwell's equations modeling ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1251-1253 (1994).
  27. R. M. Joseph, A. Taflove, "FDTD Maxwell's equations models for nonlinear electrodynamics and optics," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 364-374 (1997).
  28. R. W. Ziolkowski, "The incorporation of microscopic material models into the FDTD approach for ultrafast optical pulse simulations," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 375-391 (1997).
  29. A. S. Nagra, R. A. York, "FDTD analysis of wave propagation in nonlinear absorbing and gain media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 334-340 (1998).
  30. N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, "FDTD simulation of femtosecond optical gating in nonlinear optical waveguide utilizing intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells," IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 981-988 (2000).
  31. N. Suzuki, "Simulation of ultrafast cross-gain modulation in optically-pumped GaN/AlN intersubband optical amplifiers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5607-5612 (2003).
  32. N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, "Simulation of ultrafast GaN/AlN intersubband optical switches," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 342-348 (2005).
  33. M. Bahl, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Modeling ultrashort field dynamics in surface emitting lasers by using finite-difference time-domain method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1244-1252 (2005).
  34. Y. Huang, S. T. Ho, "Computational model of solid-state, molecular, or atomic media for FDTD simulation based on a multi-level multi-electron system governed by Pauli exclusion and Fermi–Dirac thermalization with application to semiconductor photonics," Opt. Express 14, 3569-3587 (2006).
  35. R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
  36. S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices ," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 1630-1639 (1996).
  37. H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
  38. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).

2007 (1)

2006 (12)

Y. Huang, S. T. Ho, "Computational model of solid-state, molecular, or atomic media for FDTD simulation based on a multi-level multi-electron system governed by Pauli exclusion and Fermi–Dirac thermalization with application to semiconductor photonics," Opt. Express 14, 3569-3587 (2006).

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, G. Reed, "Silicon photonics," IEEE Microw. Mag. 7, 58-68 (2006).

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides ," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589-6602 (2006).

K. Wada, D. H. Ahn, D. R. Lim, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Si microphotonics for optical interconnection," Thin Solid Films 508, 418-421 (2006).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, "Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 5524-5534 (2006).

I.-W. Hsieh, X. G. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr.S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides ," Opt. Express 14, 12 380-12 387 (2006).

R. Dekker, A. Driessen, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, J. Niehusmann, M. Först, "Ultrafast Kerr-induced all-optical wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using 1.55 µm femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 14, 8336-8346 (2006).

Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, "Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 11 721-11 726 (2006).

K. K. Tsia, S. Fathpour, B. Jalali, "Energy harvesting in silicon wavelength converters," Opt. Express 14, 12 327-12 333 (2006).

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Third-order dispersion and ultrafast-pulse propagation in silicon wire waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2617-2619 (2006).

2005 (8)

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr.S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341-4349 (2005).

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. R. A. Priem, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, H. K. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides ," Opt. Express 13, 7298-7303 (2005).

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon—Challenges and opportunities ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4238 (2005).

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6541-6545 (2005).

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, K. Ohashi, "Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364-L366 (2005).

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, "Simulation of ultrafast GaN/AlN intersubband optical switches," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 342-348 (2005).

M. Bahl, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Modeling ultrashort field dynamics in surface emitting lasers by using finite-difference time-domain method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1244-1252 (2005).

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

N. Suzuki, "Simulation of ultrafast cross-gain modulation in optically-pumped GaN/AlN intersubband optical amplifiers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5607-5612 (2003).

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).

2000 (1)

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, "FDTD simulation of femtosecond optical gating in nonlinear optical waveguide utilizing intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells," IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 981-988 (2000).

1998 (1)

A. S. Nagra, R. A. York, "FDTD analysis of wave propagation in nonlinear absorbing and gain media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 334-340 (1998).

1997 (2)

R. M. Joseph, A. Taflove, "FDTD Maxwell's equations models for nonlinear electrodynamics and optics," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 364-374 (1997).

R. W. Ziolkowski, "The incorporation of microscopic material models into the FDTD approach for ultrafast optical pulse simulations," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 375-391 (1997).

1996 (1)

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices ," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 1630-1639 (1996).

1994 (1)

R. M. Joseph, A. Taflove, "Spatial soliton deflection mechanism indicated by FD-TD Maxwell's equations modeling ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1251-1253 (1994).

1993 (2)

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. B. Judkins, "Full-wave vector Maxwell equation modeling of the self-focusing of ultrashort optical pulses in a nonlinear Kerr medium exhibiting a finite response time," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 10, 186-198 (1993).

R. M. Joseph, P. M. Goorjian, A. Taflove, "Direct time integration of Maxwell's equations in two-dimensional dielectric waveguides for propagation and scattering of femtosecond electromagnetic solitons," Opt. Lett. 18, 491-493 (1993).

1992 (1)

P. M. Goorjian, A. Taflove, R. M. Joseph, S. C. Hagness, "Computational modeling of femtosecond optical solitons from Maxwell's equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2416-2422 (1992).

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, J. F. Young, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 µm pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

M. Bahl, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Modeling ultrashort field dynamics in surface emitting lasers by using finite-difference time-domain method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1244-1252 (2005).

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

P. M. Goorjian, A. Taflove, R. M. Joseph, S. C. Hagness, "Computational modeling of femtosecond optical solitons from Maxwell's equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2416-2422 (1992).

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, G. Reed, "Silicon photonics," IEEE Microw. Mag. 7, 58-68 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Third-order dispersion and ultrafast-pulse propagation in silicon wire waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2617-2619 (2006).

R. M. Joseph, A. Taflove, "Spatial soliton deflection mechanism indicated by FD-TD Maxwell's equations modeling ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1251-1253 (1994).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (4)

R. M. Joseph, A. Taflove, "FDTD Maxwell's equations models for nonlinear electrodynamics and optics," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 364-374 (1997).

R. W. Ziolkowski, "The incorporation of microscopic material models into the FDTD approach for ultrafast optical pulse simulations," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 375-391 (1997).

A. S. Nagra, R. A. York, "FDTD analysis of wave propagation in nonlinear absorbing and gain media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 334-340 (1998).

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices ," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 1630-1639 (1996).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (2)

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, "FDTD simulation of femtosecond optical gating in nonlinear optical waveguide utilizing intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells," IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 981-988 (2000).

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, "Simulation of ultrafast GaN/AlN intersubband optical switches," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 342-348 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon—Challenges and opportunities ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4238 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. B. Judkins, "Full-wave vector Maxwell equation modeling of the self-focusing of ultrashort optical pulses in a nonlinear Kerr medium exhibiting a finite response time," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 10, 186-198 (1993).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (5)

N. Suzuki, "Simulation of ultrafast cross-gain modulation in optically-pumped GaN/AlN intersubband optical amplifiers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5607-5612 (2003).

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides ," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589-6602 (2006).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, "Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, K. Ohashi, "Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364-L366 (2005).

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6541-6545 (2005).

Opt. Express (13)

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 5524-5534 (2006).

I.-W. Hsieh, X. G. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr.S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides ," Opt. Express 14, 12 380-12 387 (2006).

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr.S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341-4349 (2005).

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. R. A. Priem, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, H. K. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides ," Opt. Express 13, 7298-7303 (2005).

R. Dekker, A. Driessen, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, J. Niehusmann, M. Först, "Ultrafast Kerr-induced all-optical wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using 1.55 µm femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 14, 8336-8346 (2006).

Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, "Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 11 721-11 726 (2006).

K. K. Tsia, S. Fathpour, B. Jalali, "Energy harvesting in silicon wavelength converters," Opt. Express 14, 12 327-12 333 (2006).

O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, B. Jalali, "Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 829-834 (2004).

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr.S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 1135-1146 (2007).

A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, J. F. Young, "Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures," Opt. Express 12, 1611-1621 (2004).

Y. Huang, S. T. Ho, "Computational model of solid-state, molecular, or atomic media for FDTD simulation based on a multi-level multi-electron system governed by Pauli exclusion and Fermi–Dirac thermalization with application to semiconductor photonics," Opt. Express 14, 3569-3587 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Thin Solid Films (1)

K. Wada, D. H. Ahn, D. R. Lim, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Si microphotonics for optical interconnection," Thin Solid Films 508, 418-421 (2006).

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