Abstract

This paper theoretically describes effective suppression of higher order modes (HOMs) in realistic large-hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers (PBGFs) and utilizes the use of this class of waveguides for low-loss data-transmission applications and high-power beam delivery systems. The proposed design strategy is based on the resonant-coupling mechanism of central air-core modes with defected outer core modes. By incorporating six 7-unit-cell air cores in the cladding of the PBGF with sixfold symmetry, it is possible by resonantly coupling the light corresponding to the HOMs in a central 19-unit-cell core into the outer 7-unit-cell core, thus significantly increasing the leakage losses of the HOMs in comparison to those of fundamental mode. We consider a realistic PBGF structure with hexagonal airholes having rounded corners and derive a surface-mode-free condition of a silica-ring thickness surrounding the hollow core for both 7-unit-cell and 19-unit-cell cores. Verification regarding the propagation properties of the proposed design is ensured with a PBGF analysis based on a finite element modal solver. Numerical results show that the leakage losses of the HOMs can be enhanced in a level of at least three orders of magnitude over 200-nm wavelength range in comparison to those of the fundamental mode, while in addition, we show that the incorporation of a realistic air core with optimized silica-ring thickness can eliminate surface modes and achieve strong confinement into the central core and very low <i>η</i> -factor for the fundamental mode.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006 (9)

J. D. Shephard, P. J. Roberts, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, "Measuring beam quality of hollow core photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3761-3769 (2006).

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. S. Light, "Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 3574-3576 (2006).

S. O. Konorov, C. J. Addison, H. G. Schulze, R. F. B. Turner, M. W. Blades, "Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber-optic probes for Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1911-1913 (2006).

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, "Low optical insertion-loss and vacuum-pressure all-fiber acetylene cell based on hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2538-2540 (2006).

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Design of air-guiding modified honeycomb photonic band-gap fibers for effectively singlemode operation," Opt. Express 14, 2404-2412 (2006).

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Realization of single-moded broadband air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1666-1688 (2006).

L. Lavoute, P. Roy, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, S. Février, "Design of microstructured single-mode fiber combining large mode area and high rare Earth ion concentration," Opt. Express 14, 2994-2999 (2006).

K. Saitoh, N. J. Florous, T. Murao, M. Koshiba, "Design of photonic band gap fibers with suppressed higher-order modes: Towards the development of effectively single mode large hollow-core fiber platforms," Opt. Express 14, 7342-7352 (2006).

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Optimizing the usable bandwidth and loss through core design in realistic hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 14, 7974-7985 (2006).

2005 (4)

2004 (6)

2003 (4)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Leakage loss and group velocity dispersion in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 11, 3100-3109 (2003).

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1243-1251 (2003).

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allen, K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic band-gap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).

P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

1986 (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Realization of single-moded broadband air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1666-1688 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. D. Shephard, P. J. Roberts, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, "Measuring beam quality of hollow core photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3761-3769 (2006).

Nature (1)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allen, K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic band-gap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).

Opt. Express (14)

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Optimizing the usable bandwidth and loss through core design in realistic hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 14, 7974-7985 (2006).

J. M. Fini, "Design of solid and microstructure fibers for suppression of higher order modes," Opt. Express 13, 3477-3490 (2005).

L. Lavoute, P. Roy, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, S. Février, "Design of microstructured single-mode fiber combining large mode area and high rare Earth ion concentration," Opt. Express 14, 2994-2999 (2006).

K. Saitoh, N. J. Florous, T. Murao, M. Koshiba, "Design of photonic band gap fibers with suppressed higher-order modes: Towards the development of effectively single mode large hollow-core fiber platforms," Opt. Express 14, 7342-7352 (2006).

P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).

J. Shephard, W. MacPherson, R. Maier, J. Jones, D. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. George, P. Roberts, J. Knight, "Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7139-7144 (2005).

P. Roberts, D. Williams, B. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. Wadsworth, T. Birks, J. Knight, P. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround ," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).

J. Shephard, J. Jones, D. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. Knight, P. Russell, B. Mangan, "High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers ," Opt. Express 12, 717-723 (2004).

G. Humbert, J. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. Russell, D. Williams, P. Roberts, B. Mangan, "Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery," Opt. Express 12, 1477-1484 (2004).

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Leakage loss and group velocity dispersion in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 11, 3100-3109 (2003).

K. Saitoh, N. Mortensen, M. Koshiba, "Air-core photonic band-gap fibers: The impact of surface modes," Opt. Express 12, 394-400 (2004).

J. West, C. Smith, N. Borrelli, D. Allan, K. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1243-1251 (2003).

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Design of air-guiding modified honeycomb photonic band-gap fibers for effectively singlemode operation," Opt. Express 14, 2404-2412 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (2)

P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

Other (1)

T. Hasegawa, T. Saitoh, D. Nishioka, E. Sasaoka, T. Hosoya, "Bend-insensitive single-mode holey fiber with SMF compatibility for optical wiring applications ," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. RiminiItaly (2003) Paper We2.7.3.

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