Abstract

In this paper, we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the detailed modeling and design of a guided-wave optical angular-velocity sensor based on Raman amplification in a silicon-on-insulator resonant cavity. Theoretical results for continuous-wave Raman laser emission are compared with experiments in the literature, demonstrating very good agreement. The model includes the influence of a number of physical effects on the propagation of both counterpropagating pumps and Stokes waves, such as stimulated Raman scattering, two-photon absorption, free-carrier dispersion, self- and cross-phase-modulation induced by the Kerr effect, and the lock-in effect. Investigation of optical dithering features by intracavity phase modulation is also presented. Performance is derived to optimize the device sensitivity for both medical, robotics, automotive, and entertainment gyro applications.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. W. W. Chow, J. G. Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, M. O. Scully, "The ring laser gyro," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61-104 (1985).
  2. E. J. Post, "Sagnac effect," Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 475-493 (1967).
  3. R. P. Moeller, W. K. Burns, N. J. Frigo, "Open-loop output and scale factor stability in a fiber-optical gyroscope," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 262-269 (1989).
  4. Y. Gronau, M. Tur, "Digital signal processing for an open-loop fiber-optical gyroscope," Appl. Opt. 34, 5849-5853 (1995).
  5. S. X. Huang, N. Sarma, Optical signal noise reduction for fiber optic gyroscopes Patent WO9836243 (1998).
  6. J. L. Wagner, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "A high-stability fiber amplifier source for the fiber optical gyroscope," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1689-1694 (1997).
  7. P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 262-269 (1994).
  8. D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, "High-stability Er3+-doped superfluorescent fiber sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1452-1460 (1995).
  9. H. G. Park, K. A. Lim, Y. J. Chin, B. Y. Kim, "Feedback effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifier/source for open-loop fiber-optical gyroscope ," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 262-269 (1997).
  10. R. K. Kadiwar, I. P. Giles, "Optical fiber Brillouin ring laser gyroscope," Electron. Lett. 25, 1729-1731 (1989).
  11. S. Huang, L. Thevenaz, K. Toyama, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Optical Kerr-effect in fiber-optic Brillouin ring laser gyroscopes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 365-367 (1993).
  12. S. H. Huang, L. Thèvenaz, K. Toyama, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Optical Kerr-effect in fiber-optic Brillouin ring laser gyroscopes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 365-367 (1993).
  13. K. S. Suzuki, K. Takiguchi, K. Hotate, "Monolithically integrated resonator microoptical gyro on silica planar lightwave circuit ," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 66-72 (2000).
  14. M. N. Armenise, M. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, F. De Leonardis, Integrated optical angular velocità sensor Patent EP1219926 (2002).
  15. M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, F. De Leonardis, M. Armenise, "Modeling and design of a novel miniaturized integrated optical sensor for gyroscope applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1476-1494 (2001).
  16. F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, "Accurate physical modeling of multi-quantum well ring lasers," Laser Phys. Lett. 2, 59-70 (2005).
  17. G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).
  18. L. Pavesi, "Will silicon be the photonic material of the third millennium," J. Phys., Condens. Matter 15, 1169-1196 (2003).
  19. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm," Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002).
  20. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003).
  21. A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering ," Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004).
  22. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, M. Lipson, "Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides ," Opt. Express 12, 4437-4442 (2004).
  23. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, M. Lipson, "Demonstration of high Raman gain in a submicrometer-size silicon-on-insulator waveguide ," Opt. Lett. 30, 35-37 (2005).
  24. R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004).
  25. V. M. N. Passaro, F. De Leonardis, "Space-time modeling of Raman pulses in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2920-2931 (2006).
  26. D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, B. Jalali, "Phase-matching and nonlinear optical processes in silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 12, 149-160 (2004).
  27. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, "Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 2862-2872 (2003).
  28. V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, "Parametric Raman wavelength conversion in scaled silicon waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2094-2102 (2005).
  29. O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).
  30. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).
  31. T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear Absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).
  32. R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, D. Hak, "Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering ," Opt. Express 13, 1716-1723 (2005).
  33. O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004).
  34. M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, "Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5703-5710 (2004).
  35. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
  36. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
  37. O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 13, 796-800 (2005).
  38. H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, O. Raday, "Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser," Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).
  39. F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, "Modeling of Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator optical microcavities," New J. Phys. 9, 3343-3345 (2007).
  40. S. Huang, K. Toyama, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Lock-in reduction technique for fiber-optical ring laser gyros," Opt. Lett. 18, 555-557 (1993).
  41. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001) pp. 31-58.
  42. F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).
  43. R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
  44. D. Marcuse, "Computer model of an injection laser amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 63-73 (1983).
  45. Comsol Multiphysics COMSOL Inc. (2005) Stockholm, Sweden, ver 3.2, single license.
  46. OptiBPM Ver.7.0 Optiwave Syst. Inc. (2005) Ottawa, ON, Canada, single license.
  47. V. M. N. Passaro, F. Magno, A. Tsarev, "Investigation of thermo-optic effect and multi-reflector tunable filter/multiplexer in SOI waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 3429-3437 (2005).
  48. Q. Fang, F. Li, C. Wang, H. Xin, Y. Liu, "A low power consumption thermo-optic variable optical attenuator based on SOI material ," Proc. IEEE 7th Int. Conf. Solid State Integr. Circuits Technol. (2004) pp. 2018-2020.

2007 (1)

F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, "Modeling of Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator optical microcavities," New J. Phys. 9, 3343-3345 (2007).

2006 (2)

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, O. Raday, "Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser," Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).

V. M. N. Passaro, F. De Leonardis, "Space-time modeling of Raman pulses in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2920-2931 (2006).

2005 (8)

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, M. Lipson, "Demonstration of high Raman gain in a submicrometer-size silicon-on-insulator waveguide ," Opt. Lett. 30, 35-37 (2005).

V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, "Parametric Raman wavelength conversion in scaled silicon waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2094-2102 (2005).

R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, D. Hak, "Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering ," Opt. Express 13, 1716-1723 (2005).

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).

O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 13, 796-800 (2005).

F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, "Accurate physical modeling of multi-quantum well ring lasers," Laser Phys. Lett. 2, 59-70 (2005).

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Magno, A. Tsarev, "Investigation of thermo-optic effect and multi-reflector tunable filter/multiplexer in SOI waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 3429-3437 (2005).

2004 (11)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).

O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004).

M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, "Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5703-5710 (2004).

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear Absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004).

D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, B. Jalali, "Phase-matching and nonlinear optical processes in silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 12, 149-160 (2004).

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering ," Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004).

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, M. Lipson, "Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides ," Opt. Express 12, 4437-4442 (2004).

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, F. De Leonardis, M. Armenise, "Modeling and design of a novel miniaturized integrated optical sensor for gyroscope applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1476-1494 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. S. Suzuki, K. Takiguchi, K. Hotate, "Monolithically integrated resonator microoptical gyro on silica planar lightwave circuit ," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 66-72 (2000).

1997 (2)

J. L. Wagner, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "A high-stability fiber amplifier source for the fiber optical gyroscope," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1689-1694 (1997).

H. G. Park, K. A. Lim, Y. J. Chin, B. Y. Kim, "Feedback effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifier/source for open-loop fiber-optical gyroscope ," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 262-269 (1997).

1995 (2)

Y. Gronau, M. Tur, "Digital signal processing for an open-loop fiber-optical gyroscope," Appl. Opt. 34, 5849-5853 (1995).

D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, "High-stability Er3+-doped superfluorescent fiber sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1452-1460 (1995).

1994 (1)

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 262-269 (1994).

1993 (3)

S. Huang, L. Thevenaz, K. Toyama, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Optical Kerr-effect in fiber-optic Brillouin ring laser gyroscopes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 365-367 (1993).

S. H. Huang, L. Thèvenaz, K. Toyama, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Optical Kerr-effect in fiber-optic Brillouin ring laser gyroscopes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 365-367 (1993).

S. Huang, K. Toyama, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Lock-in reduction technique for fiber-optical ring laser gyros," Opt. Lett. 18, 555-557 (1993).

1989 (2)

R. K. Kadiwar, I. P. Giles, "Optical fiber Brillouin ring laser gyroscope," Electron. Lett. 25, 1729-1731 (1989).

R. P. Moeller, W. K. Burns, N. J. Frigo, "Open-loop output and scale factor stability in a fiber-optical gyroscope," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 262-269 (1989).

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

1985 (1)

W. W. Chow, J. G. Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, M. O. Scully, "The ring laser gyro," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61-104 (1985).

1983 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Computer model of an injection laser amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 63-73 (1983).

1967 (1)

E. J. Post, "Sagnac effect," Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 475-493 (1967).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. K. Kadiwar, I. P. Giles, "Optical fiber Brillouin ring laser gyroscope," Electron. Lett. 25, 1729-1731 (1989).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

D. Marcuse, "Computer model of an injection laser amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 63-73 (1983).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear Absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. Huang, L. Thevenaz, K. Toyama, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Optical Kerr-effect in fiber-optic Brillouin ring laser gyroscopes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 365-367 (1993).

S. H. Huang, L. Thèvenaz, K. Toyama, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Optical Kerr-effect in fiber-optic Brillouin ring laser gyroscopes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 365-367 (1993).

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

K. S. Suzuki, K. Takiguchi, K. Hotate, "Monolithically integrated resonator microoptical gyro on silica planar lightwave circuit ," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 66-72 (2000).

J. L. Wagner, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "A high-stability fiber amplifier source for the fiber optical gyroscope," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1689-1694 (1997).

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 262-269 (1994).

D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, "High-stability Er3+-doped superfluorescent fiber sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1452-1460 (1995).

H. G. Park, K. A. Lim, Y. J. Chin, B. Y. Kim, "Feedback effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifier/source for open-loop fiber-optical gyroscope ," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 262-269 (1997).

M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, F. De Leonardis, M. Armenise, "Modeling and design of a novel miniaturized integrated optical sensor for gyroscope applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1476-1494 (2001).

R. P. Moeller, W. K. Burns, N. J. Frigo, "Open-loop output and scale factor stability in a fiber-optical gyroscope," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 262-269 (1989).

V. M. N. Passaro, F. De Leonardis, "Space-time modeling of Raman pulses in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2920-2931 (2006).

V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, "Parametric Raman wavelength conversion in scaled silicon waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2094-2102 (2005).

J. Phys., Condens. Matter (1)

L. Pavesi, "Will silicon be the photonic material of the third millennium," J. Phys., Condens. Matter 15, 1169-1196 (2003).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, "Accurate physical modeling of multi-quantum well ring lasers," Laser Phys. Lett. 2, 59-70 (2005).

Nature (3)

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).

New J. Phys. (1)

F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, "Modeling of Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator optical microcavities," New J. Phys. 9, 3343-3345 (2007).

Opt. Express (15)

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Magno, A. Tsarev, "Investigation of thermo-optic effect and multi-reflector tunable filter/multiplexer in SOI waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 3429-3437 (2005).

O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 13, 796-800 (2005).

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, O. Raday, "Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser," Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).

R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, D. Hak, "Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering ," Opt. Express 13, 1716-1723 (2005).

O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004).

M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, "Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5703-5710 (2004).

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004).

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).

D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, B. Jalali, "Phase-matching and nonlinear optical processes in silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 12, 149-160 (2004).

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, "Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 2862-2872 (2003).

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm," Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002).

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003).

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering ," Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004).

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, M. Lipson, "Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides ," Opt. Express 12, 4437-4442 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

W. W. Chow, J. G. Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, M. O. Scully, "The ring laser gyro," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61-104 (1985).

E. J. Post, "Sagnac effect," Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 475-493 (1967).

Other (6)

S. X. Huang, N. Sarma, Optical signal noise reduction for fiber optic gyroscopes Patent WO9836243 (1998).

M. N. Armenise, M. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, F. De Leonardis, Integrated optical angular velocità sensor Patent EP1219926 (2002).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001) pp. 31-58.

Q. Fang, F. Li, C. Wang, H. Xin, Y. Liu, "A low power consumption thermo-optic variable optical attenuator based on SOI material ," Proc. IEEE 7th Int. Conf. Solid State Integr. Circuits Technol. (2004) pp. 2018-2020.

Comsol Multiphysics COMSOL Inc. (2005) Stockholm, Sweden, ver 3.2, single license.

OptiBPM Ver.7.0 Optiwave Syst. Inc. (2005) Ottawa, ON, Canada, single license.

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