W. H. P. Pernice, F. P. Payne, D. F. G. Gallagher, "A general framework for the finite-difference time-domain simulation of real metals
," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2916-923 (2007).

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Directional emission, increased free spectral range and mode *Q*-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1175-1182 (2006).

S. V. Boriskina, "Theoretical prediction of a dramatic *Q*-factor enhancement
and degeneracy removal of WG modes in symmetrical photonic molecules," Opt. Lett. 31, 338-340 (2006).

M.-K. Seo, G. H. Song, I.-K. Hwang, Y.-H. Lee, "Nonlinear dispersive three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain analysis for photonic-crystal
lasers," Opt. Express 13, 9645-9651 (2005).

H. Altug, J. Vuckovic, "Photonic crystal nanocavity array laser," Opt. Express 13, 8820-8828 (2005).

M. Bahl, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, "Modeling ultrashort field dynamics in surface emitting lasers by using finite-difference
time-domain method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1244-1252 (2005).

G. M. Slavcheva, J. M. Arnold, R. W. Ziolkowski, "FDTD simulation of the nonlinear gain dynamics in active optical waveguides and semiconductor
microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 1052-1062 (2004).

M. Kretschmann, A. A. Maradudin, "Lasing action in waveguide systems and the influence of rough walls," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 21, 150-158 (2004).

M. Jungo, D. Erni, W. Baechthold, "Alternative formulation of carrier transport in spatially-dependent laser rate equations
," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 881-891 (2004).

S. Chang, A. Taflove, "Finite-difference time-domain model of lasing action in a four-level two-electron atomic system
," Opt. Express 12, 3827-3833 (2004).

J. A. Gruetzmacher, N. F. Scherer, "Finite-difference time-domain simulation of ultrashort pulse propagation incorporating
quantum-mechanical response functions," Opt. Lett. 28, 573-575 (2003).

T. Shiozawa, A. Hirata, "Analysis of free-electron lasers via FDTD method," Electron. Commun. Jpn.—Part II: Electronics 86, 26-36 (2003).

X. Song, S. Gong, S. Jin, Z. Xu, "Two-color interference effects for ultrashort laser pulses propagating in a two-level medium
," Phys. Lett. A 319, 150-156 (2003).

A. Nagra, R. York, "FDTD analysis of wave propagation in nonlinear absorbing and gain media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 334-340 (1998).

S. C. Hagness, R. M. Joseph, A. Taflove, "Subpicosecond electrodynamics of distributed Bragg reflector microlasers: Results from finite
difference time domain simulations," Radio Sci. 31, 931-941 (1996).

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. M. Arnold, D. M. Gogny, "Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082-3094 (1995).

J. L. Young, "Propagation in linear dispersive media: Finite difference time domain methodologies
," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 422-426 (1995).

P. M. Goorjian, A. Taflove, "Direct time integration of Maxwell's equations in nonlinear dispersive media for propagation and
scattering of femtosecond electromagnetic solitons," Opt. Lett. 17, 180-182 (1992).

P. M. Goorjian, A. Taflove, R. M. Joseph, S. C. Hagness, "Computational modeling of femtosecond optical solitons from Maxwell's equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2142-2146 (1992).

T. Kashiwa, I. Fukai, "A treatment by the FDTD method of the dispersive characteristics associated with electronic
polarization," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 3, 203-205 (1990).

S. W. Corzine, R. S. Geels, J. W. Scott, R. H. Yan, L. A. Coldren, "Design of Fabry–Pérot surface emitting lasers with a periodic gain structure
," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1513-1524 (1989).

J. E. Dennis, Jr.D. M. Gay, R. E. Welsch, "An adaptive nonlinear least-squares algorithm," ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 7, 348-368 (1981).

P. N. Swarztrauber, "The methods of cyclic reduction, Fourier analysis and the FACR algorithm for the discrete solution
of Poisson's equation on a rectangle," SIAM Rev. 19, 490-501 (1977).

P. N. Swarztrauber, "A direct method for the discrete solution of separable elliptic equations," SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 11, 1136-1150 (1974).

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic
media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).

R. W. Hockney, "A fast direct solution of Poisson's equation using Fourier analysis," J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 8, 95-113 (1965).

J. E. Dennis, Jr.D. M. Gay, R. E. Welsch, "An adaptive nonlinear least-squares algorithm," ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 7, 348-368 (1981).

T. Shiozawa, A. Hirata, "Analysis of free-electron lasers via FDTD method," Electron. Commun. Jpn.—Part II: Electronics 86, 26-36 (2003).

P. M. Goorjian, A. Taflove, R. M. Joseph, S. C. Hagness, "Computational modeling of femtosecond optical solitons from Maxwell's equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2142-2146 (1992).

M. Bahl, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, "Modeling ultrashort field dynamics in surface emitting lasers by using finite-difference
time-domain method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1244-1252 (2005).

S. W. Corzine, R. S. Geels, J. W. Scott, R. H. Yan, L. A. Coldren, "Design of Fabry–Pérot surface emitting lasers with a periodic gain structure
," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1513-1524 (1989).

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Directional emission, increased free spectral range and mode *Q*-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1175-1182 (2006).

G. M. Slavcheva, J. M. Arnold, R. W. Ziolkowski, "FDTD simulation of the nonlinear gain dynamics in active optical waveguides and semiconductor
microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 1052-1062 (2004).

A. Nagra, R. York, "FDTD analysis of wave propagation in nonlinear absorbing and gain media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 334-340 (1998).

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic
media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).

J. L. Young, "Propagation in linear dispersive media: Finite difference time domain methodologies
," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 422-426 (1995).

W. H. P. Pernice, F. P. Payne, D. F. G. Gallagher, "A general framework for the finite-difference time-domain simulation of real metals
," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2916-923 (2007).

R. W. Hockney, "A fast direct solution of Poisson's equation using Fourier analysis," J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 8, 95-113 (1965).

M. Kretschmann, A. A. Maradudin, "Lasing action in waveguide systems and the influence of rough walls," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 21, 150-158 (2004).

T. Kashiwa, I. Fukai, "A treatment by the FDTD method of the dispersive characteristics associated with electronic
polarization," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 3, 203-205 (1990).

M.-K. Seo, G. H. Song, I.-K. Hwang, Y.-H. Lee, "Nonlinear dispersive three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain analysis for photonic-crystal
lasers," Opt. Express 13, 9645-9651 (2005).

S. Chang, A. Taflove, "Finite-difference time-domain model of lasing action in a four-level two-electron atomic system
," Opt. Express 12, 3827-3833 (2004).

H. Altug, J. Vuckovic, "Photonic crystal nanocavity array laser," Opt. Express 13, 8820-8828 (2005).

S. V. Boriskina, "Theoretical prediction of a dramatic *Q*-factor enhancement
and degeneracy removal of WG modes in symmetrical photonic molecules," Opt. Lett. 31, 338-340 (2006).

J. A. Gruetzmacher, N. F. Scherer, "Finite-difference time-domain simulation of ultrashort pulse propagation incorporating
quantum-mechanical response functions," Opt. Lett. 28, 573-575 (2003).

P. M. Goorjian, A. Taflove, "Direct time integration of Maxwell's equations in nonlinear dispersive media for propagation and
scattering of femtosecond electromagnetic solitons," Opt. Lett. 17, 180-182 (1992).

M. Jungo, D. Erni, W. Baechthold, "Alternative formulation of carrier transport in spatially-dependent laser rate equations
," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 881-891 (2004).

X. Song, S. Gong, S. Jin, Z. Xu, "Two-color interference effects for ultrashort laser pulses propagating in a two-level medium
," Phys. Lett. A 319, 150-156 (2003).

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. M. Arnold, D. M. Gogny, "Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082-3094 (1995).

S. C. Hagness, R. M. Joseph, A. Taflove, "Subpicosecond electrodynamics of distributed Bragg reflector microlasers: Results from finite
difference time domain simulations," Radio Sci. 31, 931-941 (1996).

P. N. Swarztrauber, "A direct method for the discrete solution of separable elliptic equations," SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 11, 1136-1150 (1974).

P. N. Swarztrauber, "The methods of cyclic reduction, Fourier analysis and the FACR algorithm for the discrete solution
of Poisson's equation on a rectangle," SIAM Rev. 19, 490-501 (1977).

Harold, Photon Design http://www.photond.com.

J. Carroll, J. Whiteaway, D. Plumb, Distributed Feedback Semiconductor Lasers (SPIE Press, 1998) pp. 243-244.

S. C. Hagness, FDTD computational electromagnetics modeling of microcavity lasers and resonant optical structures
Ph.D. dissertation Northwestern Univ. Dept.
Electr. and Comput. Eng.EvanstonIL (1998).

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2000).

M. Bahl, H. Rao, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, "Modeling passively mode-locked VCSELs using FDTD," Proc. NUSOD (2004) pp. 59-60.