Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the temperature dependence of a silicon-on-insulator-based silicon nanophotonic ring resonator covered with a polymeric overlayer. Temperature-dependent wavelength shift is measured to be as low as 5 pm/°C for the TM mode in a silicon ring resonator composed of a 500 × 220 nm<sup>2</sup> channel waveguide. We also show through simulations and experiments that the temperature dependence can be reduced for the TE mode or for both the TE and TM modes by adjusting the mode volume of a silicon nanophotonic waveguide.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
  2. J. E. Bowers, A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, "Silicon evanescent lasers and amplifiers," Conf. GroupIV Photonics OttawaONCanada (2006) Paper ThB1.
  3. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
  4. C. Gunn, "Silicon photonics poised to invade local area networks," Photonics Spectra 40, 62-68 (2006).
  5. P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides ," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589-6602 (2006).
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  7. A. Kaneko, S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, A. Sugita, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) multi/demultiplexers with new low loss groove design," Electron. Lett. 36, 318-319 (2000).
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  9. D. Kim, Y. Han, J. Shin, S. Park, Y. Park, H. Sung, S. Lee, D. Kim, "Suppression of temperature and polarization dependence by polymer overcladding in silica-based AWG ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2003) Paper MF50.
  10. D.-J. Kim, J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-J. Park, H.-K. Sung, D.-K. Kim, "Thermal behavior of arrayed-waveguide grating made of silica/polymer hybrid waveguide ," ETRI J. 26, 661-664 (2004).
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  12. W. Bogaerts, D. Tailaert, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, R. G. Baets, "A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires ," Opt. Express 15, 1567-1578 (2006).
  13. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Tailaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiauz, R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).
  14. A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, T. Baba, "Estimation of polarization crosstalk at a micro-bend in Si-photonic wire waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 520-525 (2004).
  15. H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Si photonics wire waveguide devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1371-1379 (2006).
  16. K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of $70 \times 60\ \mu\hbox{m}^{2}$ size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).

2006

C. Gunn, "Silicon photonics poised to invade local area networks," Photonics Spectra 40, 62-68 (2006).

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides ," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589-6602 (2006).

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Tailaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiauz, R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Si photonics wire waveguide devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1371-1379 (2006).

W. Bogaerts, D. Tailaert, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, R. G. Baets, "A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires ," Opt. Express 15, 1567-1578 (2006).

2005

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of $70 \times 60\ \mu\hbox{m}^{2}$ size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, W. Krug, A. Scherer, "Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4215-4221 (2005).

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

2004

D.-J. Kim, J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-J. Park, H.-K. Sung, D.-K. Kim, "Thermal behavior of arrayed-waveguide grating made of silica/polymer hybrid waveguide ," ETRI J. 26, 661-664 (2004).

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, T. Baba, "Estimation of polarization crosstalk at a micro-bend in Si-photonic wire waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 520-525 (2004).

2000

A. Kaneko, S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, A. Sugita, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) multi/demultiplexers with new low loss groove design," Electron. Lett. 36, 318-319 (2000).

1999

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Suzuki, B. E. Little, S. Sato, Y. Kokubun, "Temperature insensitive vertically coupled microring resonator add/drop filters by means of a polymer overlay," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1138-1140 (1999).

1994

Y. Kokubun, M. Takizawa, S. Taga, "Three-dimensional athermal waveguides for temperature independent lightwave devices ," Electron. Lett. 30, 1223-1224 (1994).

Electron. Lett.

A. Kaneko, S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, A. Sugita, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) multi/demultiplexers with new low loss groove design," Electron. Lett. 36, 318-319 (2000).

Y. Kokubun, M. Takizawa, S. Taga, "Three-dimensional athermal waveguides for temperature independent lightwave devices ," Electron. Lett. 30, 1223-1224 (1994).

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of $70 \times 60\ \mu\hbox{m}^{2}$ size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).

ETRI J.

D.-J. Kim, J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-J. Park, H.-K. Sung, D.-K. Kim, "Thermal behavior of arrayed-waveguide grating made of silica/polymer hybrid waveguide ," ETRI J. 26, 661-664 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Tailaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiauz, R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Si photonics wire waveguide devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1371-1379 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Suzuki, B. E. Little, S. Sato, Y. Kokubun, "Temperature insensitive vertically coupled microring resonator add/drop filters by means of a polymer overlay," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1138-1140 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol.

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, T. Baba, "Estimation of polarization crosstalk at a micro-bend in Si-photonic wire waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 520-525 (2004).

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, W. Krug, A. Scherer, "Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4215-4221 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides ," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589-6602 (2006).

Nature

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

Opt. Express

Photonics Spectra

C. Gunn, "Silicon photonics poised to invade local area networks," Photonics Spectra 40, 62-68 (2006).

Other

J. E. Bowers, A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, "Silicon evanescent lasers and amplifiers," Conf. GroupIV Photonics OttawaONCanada (2006) Paper ThB1.

D. Kim, Y. Han, J. Shin, S. Park, Y. Park, H. Sung, S. Lee, D. Kim, "Suppression of temperature and polarization dependence by polymer overcladding in silica-based AWG ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2003) Paper MF50.

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