Abstract

Flat-top sharp optical filters of gigahertz bandwidth are realized using stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Pump chirp control of the SBS process enables versatile programming of the filter shape and bandwidth. The operating wavelength of the filters is tunable, and their frequency response is inherently aperiodic. Full widths at half maximum of 1.3–2.5 GHz are demonstrated, with a filtering selectivity up to 30 dB and an rms ripple of 0.5–1 dB. The filters are used to convert double sideband to single sideband (SSB) modulations for 1-GHz-wide linear-frequency-modulated (LFM) signals of arbitrary radio-frequency carrier. Such SSB modulation is highly instrumental for photonic implementations of true time delay, for example, in antenna beam-forming. The peak-side-lobe ratio of the processed LFM signal was -32 dB; its main lobe was broadened by only 4%. The integrated side-lobe ratio, which is limited by noise from spontaneous Brillouin scattering, was better than 21 dB, which is a sufficient value for most systems. The technique results in a large modulation index and does not lead to harmonic distortions.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081 113 (2005).
  2. M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10 002 (2005).
  3. M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).
  4. Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "12-GHz-bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers," Optical Fiber Commun./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOES) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP1.
  5. A. Zadok, A. Eyal, M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006).
  6. E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 5877-5884 (2006).
  7. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).
  8. D. Sadot, E. Boimovich, "Tunable optical filters for dense WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 50-55 (1998).
  9. C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis (Wiley, 1999).
  10. A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, "Narrowband tunable optical filter for channel selection in densely packed WDM systems ," Electron. Lett. 22, 1084-1085 (1986).
  11. B. Vidal, M. A. Piqueras, J. Marti, "Tunable and reconfigurable microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering ," Opt. Lett. 32, 23-25 (2007).
  12. A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Grade, "Optical carrier-suppression technique with a Brillouin-erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 197-199 (2000).
  13. A. Loayssa, J. Capmany, M. Sagues, J. Mora, "Demonstration of incoherent microwave photonic filters with all-optical complex coefficients ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1744-1746 (2006).
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  15. L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pump," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621 (2007).
  16. T. Schneider, M. Junker, K. U. Lauterbach, R. Henker, "Distortion reduction in cascaded slow light delays," Electron. Lett. 42, 1110-1111 (2007).
  17. T. Schneider, M. Junker, K. U. Lauterbach, "Potential ultra-wide slow light bandwidth enhancement," Opt. Express 14, 11 082-11 087 (2006).
  18. Z. Lu, Y. Dong, Q. Li, "Slow light in multi-line Brillouin gain spectrum," Opt. Express 15, 1871-1877 (2007).
  19. V. P. Kalosha, L. Chen, X. Bao, "Slow and fast light via SBS in optical fibers for short pulses and broadband pump," Opt. Express 14, 12 693-12 703 (2006).
  20. A. Zadok, A. Eyal, M. Tur, "Optically controlled low-distortion delay of GHz-wide radio frequency signals using slow light in fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 462-464 (2007).
  21. Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
  22. B. W. Hakki, "Evaluation of transmission characteristics of chirped DFB lasers in dispersive optical fiber ," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 964-970 (1992).
  23. M. Ito, T. Kimura, "Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 787-795 (1981).
  24. G. P. Agrawal, N. K. Dutta, Long-Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand, 1986).
  25. H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, I. Andonovich, "On the various time constants of wavelength changes of a DFB laser under direct modulation ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1816-1824 (1998).
  26. A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, I. Andonovich, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709-1711 (1998).
  27. A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Grade, "High resolution measurement of stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra in single-mode fibers ," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 148, 143-148 (2001).
  28. J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, "Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas," Electron. Lett. 33, 545-546 (1997).
  29. B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, D. Pastor, "Variable delay line for phased array antenna based on a chirped Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48, 1352-1360 (2000).
  30. D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, "Multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 108-115 (1998).
  31. O. Raz, R. Rotman, M. Tur, "Wavelength-controlled photonic true time delay for wide-band applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1076-1078 (2005).
  32. M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M.-S. Choi, J. H. den Besten, F. M. Soares, M. K. Smit, J. Marti, "Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 887-899 (2006).
  33. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber radio systems ," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).
  34. C. Wu, X. Zhang, "Impact of nonlinear distortion in radio over fiber systems with single sideband and tandem single sideband subcarrier modulations," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2076-2090 (2006).
  35. P. Lacomme, J.-P. Hardange, J.-C. Marchais, E. Normant, Air and Spaceborne Radar Systems (William Andrew, 2001).
  36. R. Rotman, O. Raz, M. Tur, "Analysis of a true time delay photonic beamformer for transmission of a linear frequency modulated waveform," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4036-4036 (2005).
  37. N. A. Olsson, J. P. Van Der Ziel, "Characteristics of a semiconductor laser pumped Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 147-153 (1987).
  38. R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, "Performance of WDM network based on stimulated Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 111-113 (1989).
  39. S. Brzilay, Non-linearity and noise considerations in photonic RF link for phased array antennas, using wideband signals M.S. thesis Faculty Eng. Tel-Aviv Univ. Tel Aviv-YafoIsrael (2006) (in Hebrew only).

2007 (5)

B. Vidal, M. A. Piqueras, J. Marti, "Tunable and reconfigurable microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering ," Opt. Lett. 32, 23-25 (2007).

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pump," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621 (2007).

T. Schneider, M. Junker, K. U. Lauterbach, R. Henker, "Distortion reduction in cascaded slow light delays," Electron. Lett. 42, 1110-1111 (2007).

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, M. Tur, "Optically controlled low-distortion delay of GHz-wide radio frequency signals using slow light in fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 462-464 (2007).

Z. Lu, Y. Dong, Q. Li, "Slow light in multi-line Brillouin gain spectrum," Opt. Express 15, 1871-1877 (2007).

2006 (8)

V. P. Kalosha, L. Chen, X. Bao, "Slow and fast light via SBS in optical fibers for short pulses and broadband pump," Opt. Express 14, 12 693-12 703 (2006).

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M.-S. Choi, J. H. den Besten, F. M. Soares, M. K. Smit, J. Marti, "Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 887-899 (2006).

C. Wu, X. Zhang, "Impact of nonlinear distortion in radio over fiber systems with single sideband and tandem single sideband subcarrier modulations," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2076-2090 (2006).

T. Schneider, M. Junker, K. U. Lauterbach, "Potential ultra-wide slow light bandwidth enhancement," Opt. Express 14, 11 082-11 087 (2006).

A. Loayssa, J. Capmany, M. Sagues, J. Mora, "Demonstration of incoherent microwave photonic filters with all-optical complex coefficients ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1744-1746 (2006).

M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006).

E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 5877-5884 (2006).

2005 (6)

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).

M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081 113 (2005).

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10 002 (2005).

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 22, 2378-2384 (2005).

R. Rotman, O. Raz, M. Tur, "Analysis of a true time delay photonic beamformer for transmission of a linear frequency modulated waveform," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4036-4036 (2005).

O. Raz, R. Rotman, M. Tur, "Wavelength-controlled photonic true time delay for wide-band applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1076-1078 (2005).

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Grade, "High resolution measurement of stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra in single-mode fibers ," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 148, 143-148 (2001).

2000 (2)

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, D. Pastor, "Variable delay line for phased array antenna based on a chirped Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48, 1352-1360 (2000).

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Grade, "Optical carrier-suppression technique with a Brillouin-erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 197-199 (2000).

1998 (4)

D. Sadot, E. Boimovich, "Tunable optical filters for dense WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 50-55 (1998).

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, "Multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 108-115 (1998).

H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, I. Andonovich, "On the various time constants of wavelength changes of a DFB laser under direct modulation ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1816-1824 (1998).

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, I. Andonovich, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709-1711 (1998).

1997 (2)

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, "Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas," Electron. Lett. 33, 545-546 (1997).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber radio systems ," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).

1992 (1)

B. W. Hakki, "Evaluation of transmission characteristics of chirped DFB lasers in dispersive optical fiber ," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 964-970 (1992).

1989 (1)

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, "Performance of WDM network based on stimulated Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 111-113 (1989).

1987 (1)

N. A. Olsson, J. P. Van Der Ziel, "Characteristics of a semiconductor laser pumped Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 147-153 (1987).

1986 (1)

A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, "Narrowband tunable optical filter for channel selection in densely packed WDM systems ," Electron. Lett. 22, 1084-1085 (1986).

1981 (1)

M. Ito, T. Kimura, "Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 787-795 (1981).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081 113 (2005).

Electron. Lett. (4)

A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, "Narrowband tunable optical filter for channel selection in densely packed WDM systems ," Electron. Lett. 22, 1084-1085 (1986).

T. Schneider, M. Junker, K. U. Lauterbach, R. Henker, "Distortion reduction in cascaded slow light delays," Electron. Lett. 42, 1110-1111 (2007).

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, "Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas," Electron. Lett. 33, 545-546 (1997).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber radio systems ," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. Sadot, E. Boimovich, "Tunable optical filters for dense WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 50-55 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Ito, T. Kimura, "Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 787-795 (1981).

H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, I. Andonovich, "On the various time constants of wavelength changes of a DFB laser under direct modulation ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1816-1824 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, I. Andonovich, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709-1711 (1998).

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, M. Tur, "Optically controlled low-distortion delay of GHz-wide radio frequency signals using slow light in fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 462-464 (2007).

A. Loayssa, J. Capmany, M. Sagues, J. Mora, "Demonstration of incoherent microwave photonic filters with all-optical complex coefficients ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1744-1746 (2006).

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pump," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621 (2007).

O. Raz, R. Rotman, M. Tur, "Wavelength-controlled photonic true time delay for wide-band applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1076-1078 (2005).

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, "Performance of WDM network based on stimulated Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 111-113 (1989).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (3)

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M.-S. Choi, J. H. den Besten, F. M. Soares, M. K. Smit, J. Marti, "Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 887-899 (2006).

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, D. Pastor, "Variable delay line for phased array antenna based on a chirped Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48, 1352-1360 (2000).

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, "Multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 108-115 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

C. Wu, X. Zhang, "Impact of nonlinear distortion in radio over fiber systems with single sideband and tandem single sideband subcarrier modulations," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2076-2090 (2006).

R. Rotman, O. Raz, M. Tur, "Analysis of a true time delay photonic beamformer for transmission of a linear frequency modulated waveform," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4036-4036 (2005).

N. A. Olsson, J. P. Van Der Ziel, "Characteristics of a semiconductor laser pumped Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 147-153 (1987).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).

B. W. Hakki, "Evaluation of transmission characteristics of chirped DFB lasers in dispersive optical fiber ," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 964-970 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 22, 2378-2384 (2005).

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. (1)

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Grade, "High resolution measurement of stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra in single-mode fibers ," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 148, 143-148 (2001).

Other (5)

G. P. Agrawal, N. K. Dutta, Long-Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand, 1986).

C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis (Wiley, 1999).

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "12-GHz-bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers," Optical Fiber Commun./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOES) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP1.

S. Brzilay, Non-linearity and noise considerations in photonic RF link for phased array antennas, using wideband signals M.S. thesis Faculty Eng. Tel-Aviv Univ. Tel Aviv-YafoIsrael (2006) (in Hebrew only).

P. Lacomme, J.-P. Hardange, J.-C. Marchais, E. Normant, Air and Spaceborne Radar Systems (William Andrew, 2001).

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