Abstract

An intersymbol interference (ISI)-suppressed optical multilevel modulation technique that is applicable to a wide range of binary and multilevel signaling is proposed. It employs binary phase-shift keying modulations that are generated by Mach–Zehnder intensity modulators as basic building blocks, and complex multilevel modulations are synthesized using interferometric addition and tandem modulations. Its feasibility and ISI suppression effect are verified in various binary and multilevel signal synthesis schemes using numerical simulations. Furthermore, the generation of ISI-suppressed zero-chirp binary and quaternary amplitude-shift keying modulations is experimentally demonstrated. Finally, its applicability to complex optical multilevel signaling is shown in the generation of a 40-Gb/s 16-level amplitude- and phase-shift keying signal, which results in 3-dB sensitivity improvement compared with the one using a conventional four-level electrical driving signal.

© 2007 IEEE

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  2. J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).
  3. N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Multilevel signalling for high-speed optical transmission," 32nd European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) CannesFrance (2006) Paper Tu3.2.1.
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  5. N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, "1.14 b/s/Hz spectrally-efficient $50 \times 85.4\ \hbox{Gb/s}$ transmission over 300 km using copolarized CS-RZ DQPSK signals," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2004) Post-deadline Paper PDP38.
  6. M. Serbay, C. Wree, W. Rosenkranz, "Experimental investigation of RZ-8DPSK at $3 \times 10.7\ \hbox{Gb/s}$," 18th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. SydneyAustralia (2005) Paper WE3.
  7. S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent demodulation of optical 8-phase shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing," Optical Fiber Communication/Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OThR5.
  8. S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Proposal of 8-state per symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) 30-Gb/s optical modulation/demodulation scheme," 29th European Conf. Optical Communication/Integrated Optics Optical Fibre Communication (ECOC/IOOC) RiminiItaly (2003) Paper Th2.6.4.
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  13. R. A. Griffin, R. I. Johnstone, R. G. Walker, J. Hall, S. D. Wadsworth, K. Berry, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, J. Hughes, P. A. Jerram, N. J. Parsons, "10 Gb/s optical differential quadrature phase shift key (DQPSK) transmission using GaAs/AlGaAs integration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2002) Paper PD-FD6.
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  16. S. K. Ibrahim, S. Bhandare, R. Noé, "20-Gb/s quaternary intensity modulation based on duobinary modulation with unequal amplitude in two polarizations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1482-1484 (2006).
  17. T. Nakamura, J. Kani, M. Teshima, K. Iwatsuki, "A quaternary amplitude shift keying modulator for suppressing initial amplitude distortion ," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 733-738 (2004).
  18. N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Proposal of inter-symbol interference (ISI) suppression technique for generation of optical multilevel signals," 32nd European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) CannesFrance (2006) Paper Tu 4.2.1.
  19. A. Leven, Direct optical N-state phase shift keying U.S. Patent 6 798 557 (2004).
  20. S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, "LiNbO3 optical single-sideband modulator," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC) BaltimoreMD (2000) Post-deadline Paper PD16-1.
  21. K.-P. Ho, H.-W. Cuei, "Generation of arbitrary quadrature signals using one dual-drive modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 733-738 (2004).
  22. R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator," Optical Fiber Communication/Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OThJ2.
  23. K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "Modulation parameter tolerance for 8- and 16-APSK (amplitude- and phase-shift keying) signals ," Optical Fiber Communication/Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper JThB13.

2006 (1)

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Bhandare, R. Noé, "20-Gb/s quaternary intensity modulation based on duobinary modulation with unequal amplitude in two polarizations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1482-1484 (2006).

2005 (3)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for 3- and 4-bit-per-symbol optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4110-4124 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, T. Sugawara, "40 Gb/s, 16-ary (4 bit/symbol) optical modulation/demodulation scheme," Electron. Lett. 41, 430-432 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

T. Nakamura, J. Kani, M. Teshima, K. Iwatsuki, "A quaternary amplitude shift keying modulator for suppressing initial amplitude distortion ," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 733-738 (2004).

K.-P. Ho, H.-W. Cuei, "Generation of arbitrary quadrature signals using one dual-drive modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 733-738 (2004).

2001 (1)

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).

1999 (1)

S. Walklin, J. Conradi, "Multilevel signaling for increasing the reach of 10 Gb/s lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2235-2248 (1999).

1990 (1)

T. Chikama, S. Watanabe, T. Naito, H. Onaka, T. Kiyonaga, Y. Onoda, H. Miyata, M. Suyama, M. Seino, H. Kuwahara, "Modulation and demodulation techniques in optical heterodyne PSK transmission systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 309-322 (1990).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, T. Sugawara, "40 Gb/s, 16-ary (4 bit/symbol) optical modulation/demodulation scheme," Electron. Lett. 41, 430-432 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Bhandare, R. Noé, "20-Gb/s quaternary intensity modulation based on duobinary modulation with unequal amplitude in two polarizations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1482-1484 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

T. Nakamura, J. Kani, M. Teshima, K. Iwatsuki, "A quaternary amplitude shift keying modulator for suppressing initial amplitude distortion ," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 733-738 (2004).

T. Chikama, S. Watanabe, T. Naito, H. Onaka, T. Kiyonaga, Y. Onoda, H. Miyata, M. Suyama, M. Seino, H. Kuwahara, "Modulation and demodulation techniques in optical heterodyne PSK transmission systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 309-322 (1990).

S. Walklin, J. Conradi, "Multilevel signaling for increasing the reach of 10 Gb/s lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2235-2248 (1999).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for 3- and 4-bit-per-symbol optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4110-4124 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

K.-P. Ho, H.-W. Cuei, "Generation of arbitrary quadrature signals using one dual-drive modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 733-738 (2004).

Other (13)

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator," Optical Fiber Communication/Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OThJ2.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "Modulation parameter tolerance for 8- and 16-APSK (amplitude- and phase-shift keying) signals ," Optical Fiber Communication/Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper JThB13.

N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, "1.14 b/s/Hz spectrally-efficient $50 \times 85.4\ \hbox{Gb/s}$ transmission over 300 km using copolarized CS-RZ DQPSK signals," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2004) Post-deadline Paper PDP38.

M. Serbay, C. Wree, W. Rosenkranz, "Experimental investigation of RZ-8DPSK at $3 \times 10.7\ \hbox{Gb/s}$," 18th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. SydneyAustralia (2005) Paper WE3.

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent demodulation of optical 8-phase shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing," Optical Fiber Communication/Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OThR5.

S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Proposal of 8-state per symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) 30-Gb/s optical modulation/demodulation scheme," 29th European Conf. Optical Communication/Integrated Optics Optical Fibre Communication (ECOC/IOOC) RiminiItaly (2003) Paper Th2.6.4.

T. Tokle, M. Serbay, Y. Geng, J. B. Jensen, W. Rosenkranz, P. Jeppesen, "Penalty-free transmission of multilevel 240 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK-ASK using only 40 Gb/s equipment ," 31st European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) GlasgowU.K. (2005) Paper We3.2.5.

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Multilevel signalling for high-speed optical transmission," 32nd European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) CannesFrance (2006) Paper Tu3.2.1.

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Time-resolved waveform measurement of high-speed phase-modulated optical signals using self-homodyne interferometry," 31st European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) GlasgowU.K. (2005) Paper We2.3.2.

R. A. Griffin, R. I. Johnstone, R. G. Walker, J. Hall, S. D. Wadsworth, K. Berry, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, J. Hughes, P. A. Jerram, N. J. Parsons, "10 Gb/s optical differential quadrature phase shift key (DQPSK) transmission using GaAs/AlGaAs integration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2002) Paper PD-FD6.

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Proposal of inter-symbol interference (ISI) suppression technique for generation of optical multilevel signals," 32nd European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) CannesFrance (2006) Paper Tu 4.2.1.

A. Leven, Direct optical N-state phase shift keying U.S. Patent 6 798 557 (2004).

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, "LiNbO3 optical single-sideband modulator," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC) BaltimoreMD (2000) Post-deadline Paper PD16-1.

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