Abstract

In this paper, we consider a fractionally spaced equalizer (FSE) for electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) in a dually polarized (polarization-multiplexed) coherent optical communications system. Our results show that the FSE can compensate any arbitrary amount of CD and first-order PMD distortion, provided that the oversampling rate is at least 3/2 and that a sufficient number of equalizer taps are used. In contrast, the amount of CD and PMD that can be corrected by a symbol-rate equalizer only approaches an asymptotic limit, and increasing the number of taps has no effect on performance due to aliasing that causes signal cancellation and noise enhancement.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, "Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1397-1399 (2004).
  2. D. Schlump, B. Wedding, H. Bülow, "Electronic equalisation of PMD and chromatic dispersion induced distortion after 100 km standard fibre at 10 Gb/s," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 535-536.
  3. F. Buchali, H. Bülow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).
  4. R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schopflin, C. Glingener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fischer, T. Weyrauch, W. Haase, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20, and 40 Gb/s with various optical equalizers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1602-1616 (1999).
  5. H. Rosenfeldt, R. Ulrich, U. Feiste, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, A. Ehrhardt, "PMD compensation in 10 Gb/s NRZ field experiment using polarimetric error signal," Electron. Lett. 36, 448-450 (2000).
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  8. G. Ungerboeck, "Fractional tap-spacing equalizer and consequences for clock recovery in data modems ," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-24, 856-864 (1976).
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  14. M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).
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  22. N. Amitay, J. Salz, "Linear equalization theory in digital data transmission over dually polarized fading radio channels," Bell Labs Tech. J. 63, 2215-2259 (1984).

2006 (3)

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Unrepeated transmission of 20-Gb/s optical quadrature phase-shift-keying signal over 200-km standard single-mode fiber based on digital processing of homodyne-detected signal for group-velocity dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1016-1018 (2006).

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent demodulation of optical multilevel phase-shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1131-1133 (2006).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Power spectra of return-to-zero optical signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1610-1618 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, "Spectrum of externally modulated optical signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 2, 658-663 (2004).

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, "Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1397-1399 (2004).

F. Buchali, H. Bülow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).

2000 (1)

H. Rosenfeldt, R. Ulrich, U. Feiste, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, A. Ehrhardt, "PMD compensation in 10 Gb/s NRZ field experiment using polarimetric error signal," Electron. Lett. 36, 448-450 (2000).

1999 (1)

R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schopflin, C. Glingener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fischer, T. Weyrauch, W. Haase, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20, and 40 Gb/s with various optical equalizers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1602-1616 (1999).

1997 (1)

C. J. Nicol, P. Larsson, K. Azadet, J. H. O'Neill, "A low-power 128-tap digital adaptive equalizer for broadband modems," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 32, 1777-1789 (1997).

1995 (1)

J. M. Cioffi, G. P. Dudevoir, M. V. Eyuboglu, G. D. Forney, "MMSE decision-feedback equalizers and coding—Part I: Equalization results," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2582-2594 (1995).

1991 (1)

J. G. Proakis, "Adaptive equalization for TDMA digital mobile radio," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 40, 333-341 (1991).

1990 (1)

J. Winters, "Equalization in coherent lightwave systems using a fractionally spaced equalizer," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1487-1491 (1990).

1985 (1)

S. Qureshi, "Adaptive equalization," Proc. IEEE 73, 1349-1387 (1985).

1984 (1)

N. Amitay, J. Salz, "Linear equalization theory in digital data transmission over dually polarized fading radio channels," Bell Labs Tech. J. 63, 2215-2259 (1984).

1981 (1)

R. D. Gitlin, S. B. Weinstein, "Fractionally spaced equalization: An improved digital transversal equalizer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 60, 275-296 (1981).

1976 (1)

G. Ungerboeck, "Fractional tap-spacing equalizer and consequences for clock recovery in data modems ," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-24, 856-864 (1976).

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

N. Amitay, J. Salz, "Linear equalization theory in digital data transmission over dually polarized fading radio channels," Bell Labs Tech. J. 63, 2215-2259 (1984).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

R. D. Gitlin, S. B. Weinstein, "Fractionally spaced equalization: An improved digital transversal equalizer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 60, 275-296 (1981).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Rosenfeldt, R. Ulrich, U. Feiste, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, A. Ehrhardt, "PMD compensation in 10 Gb/s NRZ field experiment using polarimetric error signal," Electron. Lett. 36, 448-450 (2000).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

C. J. Nicol, P. Larsson, K. Azadet, J. H. O'Neill, "A low-power 128-tap digital adaptive equalizer for broadband modems," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 32, 1777-1789 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Unrepeated transmission of 20-Gb/s optical quadrature phase-shift-keying signal over 200-km standard single-mode fiber based on digital processing of homodyne-detected signal for group-velocity dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1016-1018 (2006).

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent demodulation of optical multilevel phase-shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1131-1133 (2006).

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, "Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1397-1399 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

G. Ungerboeck, "Fractional tap-spacing equalizer and consequences for clock recovery in data modems ," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-24, 856-864 (1976).

J. M. Cioffi, G. P. Dudevoir, M. V. Eyuboglu, G. D. Forney, "MMSE decision-feedback equalizers and coding—Part I: Equalization results," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2582-2594 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. (1)

J. G. Proakis, "Adaptive equalization for TDMA digital mobile radio," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 40, 333-341 (1991).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Power spectra of return-to-zero optical signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1610-1618 (2006).

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, "Spectrum of externally modulated optical signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 2, 658-663 (2004).

J. Winters, "Equalization in coherent lightwave systems using a fractionally spaced equalizer," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1487-1491 (1990).

F. Buchali, H. Bülow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).

R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schopflin, C. Glingener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fischer, T. Weyrauch, W. Haase, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20, and 40 Gb/s with various optical equalizers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1602-1616 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

S. Qureshi, "Adaptive equalization," Proc. IEEE 73, 1349-1387 (1985).

Other (4)

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

D. Schlump, B. Wedding, H. Bülow, "Electronic equalisation of PMD and chromatic dispersion induced distortion after 100 km standard fibre at 10 Gb/s," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 535-536.

K. P. Ho, "Generation of arbitrary quadrature-amplitude modulation signals using a single dual-drive modulator," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Workshop Adv. Modulation Formats (2004) pp. 11-12.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).

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