Abstract

We propose a small-footprint X-cut thin-sheet LiNbO<sub>3</sub> optical modulator with high-speed and low-driving-voltage characteristics. Since an optical waveguide is folded by a mirror placed at one edge of the modulation chip, the chip can be shortened by about half. In addition, a wide modulation bandwidth can be achieved, because the path-length difference between the optical waveguide and the coplanar-waveguide (CPW) electrode is decreased to as short as possible by placing the CPW electrode as far as possible along the optical waveguide in the folded portion, and the microwave effective index is set to realize effective velocity matching between the lightwave and the microwave. A small footprint of 1.78 × 29 mm, a low half-wave voltage of 2.0 V at dc, and a 3-dBe modulation bandwidth of 20 GHz were obtained.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. M. Sugiyama, M. Doi, S. Taniguchi, T. Nakazawa, H. Onaka, "Driver-less 40 Gb/s $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator with sub-1 V drive voltage," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2002) Paper PD FB6-2.
  2. G. Gilardi, L. Gobbi, A. Beretta, P. Milanese, S. Pensa, D. Pircalaboiu, A. Vannucci, T. Lee, V. Filsinger, M. Martin, "Broadband $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator for digital and analog applications," Proc. MWP (2003) pp. 311-314.
  3. J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, M. Minakata, "High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2077-2079 (2005).
  4. W. K. Burns, M. M. Howerton, R. P. Moeller, A. S. Greenblatt, R. W. McElhanon, "Broad-band reflection traveling-wave $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 805-806 (1998).
  5. H. Miyazawa, O. Mitomi, "Characteristics of $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ optical modulator with reflected optical waveguides," Proc. IEICE Spring Nat. Conv. (1992) pp. 4-246.
  6. M. Sugiyama, M. Doi, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, H. Onaka, "A low drive voltage $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ phase and intensity integrated modulator for optical frequency comb generation and short pulse generation," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) StockholmSweden (2004) Paper Tu.3.4.2.
  7. H. Chung, W. S. C. Chang, E. L. Adler, "Modeling and optimization of traveling-wave $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ interferometric modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 608-617 (1991).
  8. K. Aoki, J. Kondo, A. Kondo, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, S. Shimodaira, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, M. Minakata, "High-performance optical modulator with a wide center electrode and thin X-cut $ \hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2610-2612 (2004).
  9. O. Mitomi, N. Yoshimoto, K. Magari, T. Ito, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, Y. Tohmori, K. Kasaya, "Analyzing the polarization dependence in optical spot-size converter by using a semivectorial finite-element beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1255-1262 (1999).

2005

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, M. Minakata, "High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2077-2079 (2005).

2004

K. Aoki, J. Kondo, A. Kondo, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, S. Shimodaira, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, M. Minakata, "High-performance optical modulator with a wide center electrode and thin X-cut $ \hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2610-2612 (2004).

1999

O. Mitomi, N. Yoshimoto, K. Magari, T. Ito, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, Y. Tohmori, K. Kasaya, "Analyzing the polarization dependence in optical spot-size converter by using a semivectorial finite-element beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1255-1262 (1999).

1998

W. K. Burns, M. M. Howerton, R. P. Moeller, A. S. Greenblatt, R. W. McElhanon, "Broad-band reflection traveling-wave $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 805-806 (1998).

1991

H. Chung, W. S. C. Chang, E. L. Adler, "Modeling and optimization of traveling-wave $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ interferometric modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 608-617 (1991).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. Chung, W. S. C. Chang, E. L. Adler, "Modeling and optimization of traveling-wave $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ interferometric modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 608-617 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Aoki, J. Kondo, A. Kondo, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, S. Shimodaira, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, M. Minakata, "High-performance optical modulator with a wide center electrode and thin X-cut $ \hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2610-2612 (2004).

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, M. Minakata, "High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2077-2079 (2005).

W. K. Burns, M. M. Howerton, R. P. Moeller, A. S. Greenblatt, R. W. McElhanon, "Broad-band reflection traveling-wave $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 805-806 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol.

O. Mitomi, N. Yoshimoto, K. Magari, T. Ito, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, Y. Tohmori, K. Kasaya, "Analyzing the polarization dependence in optical spot-size converter by using a semivectorial finite-element beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1255-1262 (1999).

Other

M. Sugiyama, M. Doi, S. Taniguchi, T. Nakazawa, H. Onaka, "Driver-less 40 Gb/s $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator with sub-1 V drive voltage," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2002) Paper PD FB6-2.

G. Gilardi, L. Gobbi, A. Beretta, P. Milanese, S. Pensa, D. Pircalaboiu, A. Vannucci, T. Lee, V. Filsinger, M. Martin, "Broadband $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator for digital and analog applications," Proc. MWP (2003) pp. 311-314.

H. Miyazawa, O. Mitomi, "Characteristics of $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ optical modulator with reflected optical waveguides," Proc. IEICE Spring Nat. Conv. (1992) pp. 4-246.

M. Sugiyama, M. Doi, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, H. Onaka, "A low drive voltage $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ phase and intensity integrated modulator for optical frequency comb generation and short pulse generation," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) StockholmSweden (2004) Paper Tu.3.4.2.

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