Abstract

We derive a theoretical description of the transient response for erbium fiber ring lasers, which includes the effects of amplified spontaneous emission and the large number of longitudinal modes that are present in large cavities. Based on these modified rate equations, the full transient period is simulated and compared with experimental measurements performed at 1560 nm, showing reasonable agreement with theory. Approximate analytical relations are also derived for the key characteristics of the laser response, including steady-state and transient parameters such as build-up time, frequency, and the decay constant of relaxation oscillations. The results are useful in the measurement of fiber laser parameters and in the design of novel fiber laser sensors, such as intracavity laser absorption sensors based on spectral narrowing during the transient period of power build-up in a laser cavity.

© 2007 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Bellemare, "Continuous-wave silica-based erbium-doped fibre lasers," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 211-216 (2003).
  2. Z. Meng, G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, "Stable single mode operation of a narrow-linewidth, linearly polarized, erbium fibre ring laser using a saturable absorber," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2179-2183 (2006).
  3. F. Liegeois, Y. Hernandez, D. Kinet, G. Peigne, D. Giannone, "Wavelength-switchable single-frequency erbium-doped fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2544-2546 (2005).
  4. Y.-G. Han, T. V. A. Tran, S. B. Lee, "Wavelength-spacing tunable multi-wavelength erbium doped fibre laser based on four-wave mixing of dispersion shifted fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 697-699 (2006).
  5. G. Brochu, S. LaRochelle, R. Slavik, "Modeling and experimental demonstration of ultracompact multi-wavelength distributed Fabry–Perot fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 44-53 (2005).
  6. M. Horowitz, C. R. Menyuk, T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling, III"Theoretical and experimental study of harmonically mode-locked fiber lasers for optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1565-1574 (2000).
  7. S. Yamashita, T. Baba, K. Kashiwagi, "Frequency-shifted multi-wavelength FBG laser sensor," Tech. Dig., 15th Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf. (2002) pp. 285-288.
  8. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
  9. G. Whitenett, G. Stewart, H. Yu, B. Culshaw, "Investigation of a tuneable mode-locked fibre laser for application to multi-point gas spectroscopy," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 813-819 (2004).
  10. V. M. Baev, T. Latz, P. E. Toschek, "Laser intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 69, 171-202 (1999).
  11. Y. O. Barmenkov, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andres, "Time-domain fiber laser hydrogen sensor," Opt. Lett. 29, 2461-2463 (2004).
  12. G. Stewart, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, M. A. Morante, F. Dong, "Design of a fibre optic multi-point sensor for gas detection," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 51, 227-232 (1998).
  13. R. Bohm, V. M. Baev, P. E. Toschek, "Measurements of operation parameters and non-linearity of a $\hbox{Nd}^{3+}$ doped fibre laser by relaxation oscillations," Opt. Commun. 134, 537-546 (1997).
  14. Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivasta, "Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).
  15. Rare-Earth-Doped Fibre Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, 2001).
  16. Y. T. Chieng, "Derivation of the mode build-up time of tunable fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 212-214 (1996).
  17. Y. T. Chieng, G. J. Cowle, R. A. Minasian, "Optimization of wavelength tuning of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1730-1739 (1996).
  18. K. Song, M. Premaratne, R. D. T. Lauder, "An analytical formulation of the transient response of gain-clamped EDFAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1378-1380 (1999).
  19. K. W. Na, W. J. Lee, J. T. Choi, W. W. Yoon, K. K. Lee, "Rate equation model for gain-clamped erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 663-664 (1999).
  20. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (Univ. Sci., 1986) pp. 502-503.
  21. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifiers (Academic, 1999) pp. 147-157.
  22. C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
  23. R. E. Tench, M. Shimizu, "Fluorescence-based measurement of $g^{\ast}(λ)$ for erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1559-1564 (1997).
  24. G. Stewart, K. Atherton, B. Culshaw, "Cavity enhanced spectroscopy in fibre cavities," Opt. Lett. 29, 442-444 (2004).
  25. G. Stewart, V. Karthik, G. Whitenett, "Optical fibre sensors based on the dynamic response of fibre lasers," Proc. 17th Int. Conf. Opt. Fibre Sensors (2005) pp. 916-919.
  26. G. Stewart, P. Shields, B. Culshaw, "Development of fibre laser systems for ring-down and intra-cavity gas spectroscopy in the near-IR ," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1621-1628 (2004).

2006 (2)

Z. Meng, G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, "Stable single mode operation of a narrow-linewidth, linearly polarized, erbium fibre ring laser using a saturable absorber," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2179-2183 (2006).

Y.-G. Han, T. V. A. Tran, S. B. Lee, "Wavelength-spacing tunable multi-wavelength erbium doped fibre laser based on four-wave mixing of dispersion shifted fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 697-699 (2006).

2005 (2)

F. Liegeois, Y. Hernandez, D. Kinet, G. Peigne, D. Giannone, "Wavelength-switchable single-frequency erbium-doped fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2544-2546 (2005).

G. Brochu, S. LaRochelle, R. Slavik, "Modeling and experimental demonstration of ultracompact multi-wavelength distributed Fabry–Perot fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 44-53 (2005).

2004 (4)

G. Whitenett, G. Stewart, H. Yu, B. Culshaw, "Investigation of a tuneable mode-locked fibre laser for application to multi-point gas spectroscopy," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 813-819 (2004).

G. Stewart, P. Shields, B. Culshaw, "Development of fibre laser systems for ring-down and intra-cavity gas spectroscopy in the near-IR ," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1621-1628 (2004).

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, B. Culshaw, "Cavity enhanced spectroscopy in fibre cavities," Opt. Lett. 29, 442-444 (2004).

Y. O. Barmenkov, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andres, "Time-domain fiber laser hydrogen sensor," Opt. Lett. 29, 2461-2463 (2004).

2003 (1)

A. Bellemare, "Continuous-wave silica-based erbium-doped fibre lasers," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 211-216 (2003).

2000 (1)

M. Horowitz, C. R. Menyuk, T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling, III"Theoretical and experimental study of harmonically mode-locked fiber lasers for optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1565-1574 (2000).

1999 (3)

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, P. E. Toschek, "Laser intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 69, 171-202 (1999).

K. Song, M. Premaratne, R. D. T. Lauder, "An analytical formulation of the transient response of gain-clamped EDFAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1378-1380 (1999).

K. W. Na, W. J. Lee, J. T. Choi, W. W. Yoon, K. K. Lee, "Rate equation model for gain-clamped erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 663-664 (1999).

1998 (1)

G. Stewart, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, M. A. Morante, F. Dong, "Design of a fibre optic multi-point sensor for gas detection," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 51, 227-232 (1998).

1997 (4)

R. Bohm, V. M. Baev, P. E. Toschek, "Measurements of operation parameters and non-linearity of a $\hbox{Nd}^{3+}$ doped fibre laser by relaxation oscillations," Opt. Commun. 134, 537-546 (1997).

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivasta, "Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

R. E. Tench, M. Shimizu, "Fluorescence-based measurement of $g^{\ast}(λ)$ for erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1559-1564 (1997).

1996 (2)

Y. T. Chieng, "Derivation of the mode build-up time of tunable fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 212-214 (1996).

Y. T. Chieng, G. J. Cowle, R. A. Minasian, "Optimization of wavelength tuning of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1730-1739 (1996).

1991 (1)

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).

Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, P. E. Toschek, "Laser intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 69, 171-202 (1999).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. W. Na, W. J. Lee, J. T. Choi, W. W. Yoon, K. K. Lee, "Rate equation model for gain-clamped erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 663-664 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivasta, "Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. T. Chieng, "Derivation of the mode build-up time of tunable fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 212-214 (1996).

K. Song, M. Premaratne, R. D. T. Lauder, "An analytical formulation of the transient response of gain-clamped EDFAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1378-1380 (1999).

F. Liegeois, Y. Hernandez, D. Kinet, G. Peigne, D. Giannone, "Wavelength-switchable single-frequency erbium-doped fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2544-2546 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (8)

Z. Meng, G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, "Stable single mode operation of a narrow-linewidth, linearly polarized, erbium fibre ring laser using a saturable absorber," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2179-2183 (2006).

G. Brochu, S. LaRochelle, R. Slavik, "Modeling and experimental demonstration of ultracompact multi-wavelength distributed Fabry–Perot fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 44-53 (2005).

M. Horowitz, C. R. Menyuk, T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling, III"Theoretical and experimental study of harmonically mode-locked fiber lasers for optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1565-1574 (2000).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

G. Whitenett, G. Stewart, H. Yu, B. Culshaw, "Investigation of a tuneable mode-locked fibre laser for application to multi-point gas spectroscopy," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 813-819 (2004).

Y. T. Chieng, G. J. Cowle, R. A. Minasian, "Optimization of wavelength tuning of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1730-1739 (1996).

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).

R. E. Tench, M. Shimizu, "Fluorescence-based measurement of $g^{\ast}(λ)$ for erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1559-1564 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Stewart, P. Shields, B. Culshaw, "Development of fibre laser systems for ring-down and intra-cavity gas spectroscopy in the near-IR ," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1621-1628 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Bohm, V. M. Baev, P. E. Toschek, "Measurements of operation parameters and non-linearity of a $\hbox{Nd}^{3+}$ doped fibre laser by relaxation oscillations," Opt. Commun. 134, 537-546 (1997).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Bellemare, "Continuous-wave silica-based erbium-doped fibre lasers," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 211-216 (2003).

Sens. Actuators B, Chem. (1)

G. Stewart, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, M. A. Morante, F. Dong, "Design of a fibre optic multi-point sensor for gas detection," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 51, 227-232 (1998).

Other (5)

Rare-Earth-Doped Fibre Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, 2001).

S. Yamashita, T. Baba, K. Kashiwagi, "Frequency-shifted multi-wavelength FBG laser sensor," Tech. Dig., 15th Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf. (2002) pp. 285-288.

G. Stewart, V. Karthik, G. Whitenett, "Optical fibre sensors based on the dynamic response of fibre lasers," Proc. 17th Int. Conf. Opt. Fibre Sensors (2005) pp. 916-919.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (Univ. Sci., 1986) pp. 502-503.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifiers (Academic, 1999) pp. 147-157.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.