Abstract

A true time delay (TTD) beamforming system incorporating a wavelength tunable optical phase-lock loop (OPLL) module is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed system, instead of using a high-frequency intensity modulator to modulate the optical carrier with an RF signal, we use two laser diodes (LDs) that are phase locked to generate an RF signal, which is then sent to a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) prism to produce different time delays. Since no optical intensity modulator is used, the system can operate at much higher frequencies with a reduced cost. In addition, the use of only two wavelengths eliminates the power-penalty problem caused by chromatic dispersion. In the proposed approach, the wavelengths from the two LDs are phase-locked using a frequency-discriminator-aided OPLL. A TTD beamforming system, using the OPLL in combination with an FBG prism to achieve tunable time delays, is investigated. Experimental time-delay results are provided.

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  1. R. A. Soref, "Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering," Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325-333 (1996).
  2. A. Molony, C. Edge, I. Bennion, "Fibre grating time delay element for phased array antennas," Electron. Lett. 31, 1485-1486 (1995).
  3. I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).
  4. L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, "The use of optically coherent detection techniques for true-time delay phased array and systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1663-1678 (1995).
  5. R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, "Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1513-1517 (1997).
  6. A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, "Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: Discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1527-1530 (1997).
  7. Y. Chen, R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).
  8. D. N. McQuiddy, Jr.R. L. Gassner, P. Hull, J. S. Mason, J. M. Bedinger, "Transmit/receive module technology for X-band active array radar," Proc. IEEE 79, 308-341 (1991).
  9. S. Blais, Design and realization of a Bragg grating prism on planar integrated optical waveguides for wideband photonic true time-delay beamforming Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Elect. Eng., Univ. OttawaOttawaONCanada (2005).
  10. R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas (Wiley-Interscience, 1998).
  11. P. Abele, R. Stephan, M. Birk, D. Behammer, H. Kibbel, A. Trasser, K. B. Schad, E. Sonmez, H. Schumacher, "An electrically tunable true-time-delay line on Si for a broadband noise radar," Proc. Top. Meeting Silicon Monolithic Integr. Circuits RF Syst. (2003) pp. 130-133.
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  14. R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. G. Cooper, "Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347-1349 (1993).
  15. G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, "Programmable fiber optic delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 741-743 (1994).
  16. D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, "Programmable dispersion matrix using Bragg fiber grating for optically controlled phased array antennas," Electron. Lett. 32, 1532-1533 (1996).
  17. R. Benjamin, A. J. Seeds, "Optical beam forming techniques for phased array antennas," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Pt. H 139, 526-534 (1992).
  18. E. H. Monsay, K. C. Baldwin, M. J. Caccuitto, "Photonic true time delay for high-frequency phased array systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 118-120 (1994).
  19. J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, "Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1531-1536 (1997).
  20. J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1529-1531 (1997).
  21. Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. Yao, "Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172-1174 (2002).
  22. M. Volker, "Coherent all-fibre optical beam-steering technique for phased-array antennas," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 139, 305-308 (1992).
  23. N. A. Riza, "Acousto-optic liquid-crystal analog beam former for phased-array antennas," Appl. Opt. 33, 3712-3724 (1994).
  24. R. Li, R. T. Chen, "3-bit substrate-guided-mode optical true time delay lines operating at 25 GHz," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 100-102 (1997).
  25. U. Gliese, T. N. Nielsen, S. Nørskov, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Multifunctional fiber-optic microwave links based on remote heterodyne detection," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 458-468 (1998).
  26. R. Hofstetter, H. Schmuck, R. Heidemann, "Dispersion effects in optical millimeter-wave systems using self-heterodyne method for transport and generation," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2263-2269 (1995).
  27. J. Park, W. V. Sorin, K. Y. Lau, "Elimination of the fibre chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimetre-wave optical transmission," Electron. Lett. 33, 512-513 (1997).
  28. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, , 21410-1415 (1997).
  29. A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, A. J. Seeds, "High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 328-342 (1999).
  30. J. S. Seregelyi, J. C. Bélisle, "A discriminator-aided, optical phase-lock loop constructed from commercial components ," Proc. SPIE, Photonics North (2004) pp. 407-412.
  31. H. R. Rideout, J. S. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, J. P. Yao, "Discriminator-aided optical phase-lock loop incorporating a frequency down-conversion module ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2344-2346 (2006).
  32. A. Bononi, P. Ghiggino, G. Picchi, "Analysis of the automatic frequency control in heterodyne optical receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 794-803 (1992).
  33. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).
  34. H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, "Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241-243 (1997).
  35. R. E. Bartolo, C. K. Kirkendall, V. Kupershmidt, S. Siala, "Achieving narrow linewidth, low phase noise external cavity semiconductor lasers through the reduction of 1/f noise," Proc. SPIE 6133, 61 330I.1-61 330I.8 (2006).
  36. R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, "Delay, linewidth, and bandwidth limitations in optical phase-locked loop design," Electron. Lett. 26, 389-391 (1990).
  37. A. Othonos, "Fiber Bragg gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309-4341 (1997).
  38. N. Sayers, S. Granieri, A. Siahmakoun, "Fabrication of multiple fiber-Bragg gratings on one SMF using a single phase-mask," Proc. SPIE Photonic Appl. Devices and Commun. Syst. (2005) pp. 59 701J.
  39. Q. Zhang, D. A. Brown, L. Reinhart, T. F. Morse, J. Q. Wang, G. Xiao, "Tuning Bragg wavelength by writing gratings on prestrained fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 839-841 (1994).
  40. K. Ennser, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, "Optimization of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for optical communications ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 770-778 (1998).
  41. Z. F. Fan, M. Dagenais, "Optical generation of a mHz-linewidth microwave signal using semiconductor lasers and a discriminator-aided phase-locked loop," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1296-1300 (1997).

2006 (2)

H. R. Rideout, J. S. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, J. P. Yao, "Discriminator-aided optical phase-lock loop incorporating a frequency down-conversion module ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2344-2346 (2006).

R. E. Bartolo, C. K. Kirkendall, V. Kupershmidt, S. Siala, "Achieving narrow linewidth, low phase noise external cavity semiconductor lasers through the reduction of 1/f noise," Proc. SPIE 6133, 61 330I.1-61 330I.8 (2006).

2002 (2)

Y. Chen, R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).

Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. Yao, "Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172-1174 (2002).

1999 (1)

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, A. J. Seeds, "High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 328-342 (1999).

1998 (2)

K. Ennser, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, "Optimization of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for optical communications ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 770-778 (1998).

U. Gliese, T. N. Nielsen, S. Nørskov, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Multifunctional fiber-optic microwave links based on remote heterodyne detection," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 458-468 (1998).

1997 (11)

R. Li, R. T. Chen, "3-bit substrate-guided-mode optical true time delay lines operating at 25 GHz," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 100-102 (1997).

J. Park, W. V. Sorin, K. Y. Lau, "Elimination of the fibre chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimetre-wave optical transmission," Electron. Lett. 33, 512-513 (1997).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, , 21410-1415 (1997).

Z. F. Fan, M. Dagenais, "Optical generation of a mHz-linewidth microwave signal using semiconductor lasers and a discriminator-aided phase-locked loop," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1296-1300 (1997).

A. Othonos, "Fiber Bragg gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309-4341 (1997).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, "Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241-243 (1997).

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, "Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1531-1536 (1997).

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1529-1531 (1997).

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, "Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1513-1517 (1997).

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, "Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: Discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1527-1530 (1997).

1996 (2)

R. A. Soref, "Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering," Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325-333 (1996).

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, "Programmable dispersion matrix using Bragg fiber grating for optically controlled phased array antennas," Electron. Lett. 32, 1532-1533 (1996).

1995 (4)

A. Molony, C. Edge, I. Bennion, "Fibre grating time delay element for phased array antennas," Electron. Lett. 31, 1485-1486 (1995).

I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, "The use of optically coherent detection techniques for true-time delay phased array and systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1663-1678 (1995).

R. Hofstetter, H. Schmuck, R. Heidemann, "Dispersion effects in optical millimeter-wave systems using self-heterodyne method for transport and generation," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2263-2269 (1995).

1994 (4)

E. H. Monsay, K. C. Baldwin, M. J. Caccuitto, "Photonic true time delay for high-frequency phased array systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 118-120 (1994).

Q. Zhang, D. A. Brown, L. Reinhart, T. F. Morse, J. Q. Wang, G. Xiao, "Tuning Bragg wavelength by writing gratings on prestrained fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 839-841 (1994).

N. A. Riza, "Acousto-optic liquid-crystal analog beam former for phased-array antennas," Appl. Opt. 33, 3712-3724 (1994).

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, "Programmable fiber optic delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 741-743 (1994).

1993 (1)

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. G. Cooper, "Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347-1349 (1993).

1992 (3)

R. Benjamin, A. J. Seeds, "Optical beam forming techniques for phased array antennas," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Pt. H 139, 526-534 (1992).

M. Volker, "Coherent all-fibre optical beam-steering technique for phased-array antennas," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 139, 305-308 (1992).

A. Bononi, P. Ghiggino, G. Picchi, "Analysis of the automatic frequency control in heterodyne optical receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 794-803 (1992).

1991 (2)

D. N. McQuiddy, Jr.R. L. Gassner, P. Hull, J. S. Mason, J. M. Bedinger, "Transmit/receive module technology for X-band active array radar," Proc. IEEE 79, 308-341 (1991).

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, "The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1124-1131 (1991).

1990 (1)

R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, "Delay, linewidth, and bandwidth limitations in optical phase-locked loop design," Electron. Lett. 26, 389-391 (1990).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (4)

A. Molony, C. Edge, I. Bennion, "Fibre grating time delay element for phased array antennas," Electron. Lett. 31, 1485-1486 (1995).

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, "Programmable dispersion matrix using Bragg fiber grating for optically controlled phased array antennas," Electron. Lett. 32, 1532-1533 (1996).

J. Park, W. V. Sorin, K. Y. Lau, "Elimination of the fibre chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimetre-wave optical transmission," Electron. Lett. 33, 512-513 (1997).

R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, "Delay, linewidth, and bandwidth limitations in optical phase-locked loop design," Electron. Lett. 26, 389-391 (1990).

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

R. A. Soref, "Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering," Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325-333 (1996).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Ennser, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, "Optimization of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for optical communications ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 770-778 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (10)

H. R. Rideout, J. S. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, J. P. Yao, "Discriminator-aided optical phase-lock loop incorporating a frequency down-conversion module ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2344-2346 (2006).

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, "Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241-243 (1997).

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1529-1531 (1997).

Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. Yao, "Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172-1174 (2002).

R. Li, R. T. Chen, "3-bit substrate-guided-mode optical true time delay lines operating at 25 GHz," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 100-102 (1997).

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. G. Cooper, "Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347-1349 (1993).

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, "Programmable fiber optic delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 741-743 (1994).

E. H. Monsay, K. C. Baldwin, M. J. Caccuitto, "Photonic true time delay for high-frequency phased array systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 118-120 (1994).

Y. Chen, R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).

Q. Zhang, D. A. Brown, L. Reinhart, T. F. Morse, J. Q. Wang, G. Xiao, "Tuning Bragg wavelength by writing gratings on prestrained fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 839-841 (1994).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (8)

I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, "Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1513-1517 (1997).

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, "Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: Discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1527-1530 (1997).

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, "Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1531-1536 (1997).

U. Gliese, T. N. Nielsen, S. Nørskov, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Multifunctional fiber-optic microwave links based on remote heterodyne detection," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 458-468 (1998).

R. Hofstetter, H. Schmuck, R. Heidemann, "Dispersion effects in optical millimeter-wave systems using self-heterodyne method for transport and generation," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2263-2269 (1995).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, , 21410-1415 (1997).

Z. F. Fan, M. Dagenais, "Optical generation of a mHz-linewidth microwave signal using semiconductor lasers and a discriminator-aided phase-locked loop," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1296-1300 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

A. Bononi, P. Ghiggino, G. Picchi, "Analysis of the automatic frequency control in heterodyne optical receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 794-803 (1992).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, A. J. Seeds, "High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 328-342 (1999).

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, "The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1124-1131 (1991).

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, "The use of optically coherent detection techniques for true-time delay phased array and systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1663-1678 (1995).

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. N. McQuiddy, Jr.R. L. Gassner, P. Hull, J. S. Mason, J. M. Bedinger, "Transmit/receive module technology for X-band active array radar," Proc. IEEE 79, 308-341 (1991).

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. (1)

M. Volker, "Coherent all-fibre optical beam-steering technique for phased-array antennas," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 139, 305-308 (1992).

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Pt. H (1)

R. Benjamin, A. J. Seeds, "Optical beam forming techniques for phased array antennas," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Pt. H 139, 526-534 (1992).

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. E. Bartolo, C. K. Kirkendall, V. Kupershmidt, S. Siala, "Achieving narrow linewidth, low phase noise external cavity semiconductor lasers through the reduction of 1/f noise," Proc. SPIE 6133, 61 330I.1-61 330I.8 (2006).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Othonos, "Fiber Bragg gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309-4341 (1997).

Other (6)

N. Sayers, S. Granieri, A. Siahmakoun, "Fabrication of multiple fiber-Bragg gratings on one SMF using a single phase-mask," Proc. SPIE Photonic Appl. Devices and Commun. Syst. (2005) pp. 59 701J.

J. S. Seregelyi, J. C. Bélisle, "A discriminator-aided, optical phase-lock loop constructed from commercial components ," Proc. SPIE, Photonics North (2004) pp. 407-412.

S. Blais, Design and realization of a Bragg grating prism on planar integrated optical waveguides for wideband photonic true time-delay beamforming Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Elect. Eng., Univ. OttawaOttawaONCanada (2005).

R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas (Wiley-Interscience, 1998).

P. Abele, R. Stephan, M. Birk, D. Behammer, H. Kibbel, A. Trasser, K. B. Schad, E. Sonmez, H. Schumacher, "An electrically tunable true-time-delay line on Si for a broadband noise radar," Proc. Top. Meeting Silicon Monolithic Integr. Circuits RF Syst. (2003) pp. 130-133.

Photonic Control Systems for Phased Array Antennas (, 1997).

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