Abstract

Slow light has been proposed as a potential solution to all-optically tunable delay line. However, a slow-light element may degrade data quality in an optical communication system while decreasing group velocity of optical pulses. In this paper, pattern dependence of signal distortion is identified as a main reason for data degradation, which is caused by narrow-band amplitude and phase responses of the slow-light elements. We define figure of merit involving pulse delay and data degradation to optimize slow-light devices. It is shown that the pattern dependence can be reduced by detuning slow-light devices away from the signal carrier frequency, which allows using narrow-band slow-light techniques to increase normalized delay up to 0.8, with Q improvement of 2 dB.

© 2007 IEEE

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  30. Z. S. Yang, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, A. L. Smirl, "Distortionless light pulse delay in quantum-well Bragg structures," Opt. Lett. 30, 2790-2792 (2005).
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  33. T. Kunihiro, A. Maeda, S. Oda, A. Maruta, "Experimental demonstration of all-optical tunable delay line based on distortion-less slow and fast light using soliton collision in optical fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 11736-11747 (2006).
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  35. A. B. Matsko, D. V. Strekalov, L. Maleki, "On the dynamic range of optical delay lines based on coherent atomic media," Opt. Exp. 13, 2210-2223 (2005).
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  44. B. Zhang, Y.-S. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gb/s differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).
  45. R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, "Slow light with large fractional delays by spectral hole-burning in rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 74, 033 801-1-033 801-4 (2006).
  46. Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
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2007 (4)

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "12-GHz-bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).

J. B. Khurgin, "Power dissipation in slow light devices: A comparative analysis," Opt. Lett. 32, 163-165 (2007).

C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "Data pulse distortion induced by a slow-light tunable delay line in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 20-22 (2007).

B. Zhang, Y.-S. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gb/s differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).

2006 (15)

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, "Slow light with large fractional delays by spectral hole-burning in rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 74, 033 801-1-033 801-4 (2006).

E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 5877-5884 (2006).

M. G. Herráez, K. Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 1395-1400 (2006).

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, M. Lipson, "Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123 901.1-123 901.4 (2006).

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nature Phys. 2, 775-780 (2006).

T. Kunihiro, A. Maeda, S. Oda, A. Maruta, "Experimental demonstration of all-optical tunable delay line based on distortion-less slow and fast light using soliton collision in optical fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 11736-11747 (2006).

Y. Okawachi, M. Foster, J. Sharping, A. Gaeta, Q. Xu, M. Lipson, "All-optical slow-light on a photonic chip," Opt. Exp. 14, 2317-2322 (2006).

E. Shumakher, A. Willinger, R. Blit, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 Gb/s data in a slow light system based on narrow band fiber parametric amplification," Opt. Exp. 14, 8540-8545 (2006).

L. Yi, W. Hu, Y. Su, M. Gao, L. Leng, "Design and system demonstration of a tunable slow-light delay line based on fiber parametric process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2575-2577 (2006).

S. Dubovitsky, W. H. Steier, "Relationship between the slowing and loss in optical delay lines," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 372-377 (2006).

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Exp. 14, 8498-8505 (2006).

V. P. Kalosha, L. Chen, X. Bao, "Slow and fast light via SBS in optical fibers for short pulses and broadband pump," Opt. Exp. 14, 12 693-12 703 (2006).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. L. Chuang, "Slow and fast light in semiconductor quantum-well and quantum-dot devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4642-4654 (2006).

H.-Y. Tseng, J. Huang, A. Adibi, "Expansion of the relative time delay by switching between slow and fast light using coherent population oscillation with semiconductors," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. B85, 493-501 (2006).

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, "Applications of slow light in telecommunications," Opt. Photon. News 17, 19-23 (2006).

2005 (13)

K. Y. Song, M. G. Herráez, L. Thévenaz, "Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Exp. 13, 82-88 (2005).

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153 902-153 905 (2005).

D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: A route to all optical buffering," Opt. Exp. 13, 6234-6249 (2005).

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, A. E. Willner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 71, 023 801-1-023 801-4 (2005).

A. B. Matsko, D. V. Strekalov, L. Maleki, "On the dynamic range of optical delay lines based on coherent atomic media," Opt. Exp. 13, 2210-2223 (2005).

J. B. Khurgin, "Optical buffers based on slow light in electromagnetically induced transparent media and coupled resonator structures: Comparative analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 22, 1062-1074 (2005).

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Exp. 13, 9995-10 002 (2005).

X. Zhao, P. Palinginis, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Hemmer, "Tunable ultraslow light in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 7899-7904 (2005).

Z. S. Yang, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, A. L. Smirl, "Distortionless light pulse delay in quantum-well Bragg structures," Opt. Lett. 30, 2790-2792 (2005).

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 22, 2378-2384 (2005).

J. D. Downie, "Relationship of Q penalty to eye-closure penalty for NRZ and RZ signals with signal-dependent noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2031-2038 (2005).

2004 (2)

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083 901-1-083 901-4 (2004).

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Designing coupled-resonator optical waveguide delay lines," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 21, 1665-1673 (2004).

2003 (5)

Z. Wang, S. Fan, "Compact all-pass filters in photonic crystals as the building block for high-capacity optical delay lines," Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 68, 066 616-1-066 616-4 (2003).

E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumelyuk, S. Odoulov, "Light pulse slowing down up to 0.025 cm/s by photorefractive two-wave coupling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083 902-1-083 902-4 (2003).

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, M. Martinelli, "Linear and nonlinear pulse propagation in coupled resonator slow-wave optical structures ," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365-379 (2003).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, J. Kim, S. L. Chuang, "Variable optical buffer using slow light in semiconductor nanostructures," Proc. IEEE 91, 1884-1897 (2003).

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113 903 (2003).

2002 (2)

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).

M. Soljacic, S. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 19, 2052-2059 (2002).

2001 (2)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. Behroozi, L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses ," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).

K. Lee, N. M. Lawandy, "Optically induced pulse delay in a solid-state Raman amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 703-705 (2001).

1999 (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

1998 (1)

W. Zhong, R. S. Tucker, "Wavelength routing-based photonic packet buffers and their applications in photonic packet switching systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1737-1745 (1998).

Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

H.-Y. Tseng, J. Huang, A. Adibi, "Expansion of the relative time delay by switching between slow and fast light using coherent population oscillation with semiconductors," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. B85, 493-501 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Lee, N. M. Lawandy, "Optically induced pulse delay in a solid-state Raman amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 703-705 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Dubovitsky, W. H. Steier, "Relationship between the slowing and loss in optical delay lines," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 372-377 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Yi, W. Hu, Y. Su, M. Gao, L. Leng, "Design and system demonstration of a tunable slow-light delay line based on fiber parametric process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2575-2577 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. L. Chuang, "Slow and fast light in semiconductor quantum-well and quantum-dot devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4642-4654 (2006).

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "12-GHz-bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).

W. Zhong, R. S. Tucker, "Wavelength routing-based photonic packet buffers and their applications in photonic packet switching systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1737-1745 (1998).

J. D. Downie, "Relationship of Q penalty to eye-closure penalty for NRZ and RZ signals with signal-dependent noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2031-2038 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (4)

J. B. Khurgin, "Optical buffers based on slow light in electromagnetically induced transparent media and coupled resonator structures: Comparative analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 22, 1062-1074 (2005).

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 22, 2378-2384 (2005).

M. Soljacic, S. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 19, 2052-2059 (2002).

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Designing coupled-resonator optical waveguide delay lines," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 21, 1665-1673 (2004).

Nature (2)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. Behroozi, L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses ," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).

Nature Phys. (1)

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nature Phys. 2, 775-780 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (14)

T. Kunihiro, A. Maeda, S. Oda, A. Maruta, "Experimental demonstration of all-optical tunable delay line based on distortion-less slow and fast light using soliton collision in optical fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 11736-11747 (2006).

A. B. Matsko, D. V. Strekalov, L. Maleki, "On the dynamic range of optical delay lines based on coherent atomic media," Opt. Exp. 13, 2210-2223 (2005).

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Exp. 13, 9995-10 002 (2005).

X. Zhao, P. Palinginis, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Hemmer, "Tunable ultraslow light in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 7899-7904 (2005).

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).

Y. Okawachi, M. Foster, J. Sharping, A. Gaeta, Q. Xu, M. Lipson, "All-optical slow-light on a photonic chip," Opt. Exp. 14, 2317-2322 (2006).

D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: A route to all optical buffering," Opt. Exp. 13, 6234-6249 (2005).

E. Shumakher, A. Willinger, R. Blit, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 Gb/s data in a slow light system based on narrow band fiber parametric amplification," Opt. Exp. 14, 8540-8545 (2006).

K. Y. Song, M. G. Herráez, L. Thévenaz, "Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Exp. 13, 82-88 (2005).

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Exp. 14, 8498-8505 (2006).

V. P. Kalosha, L. Chen, X. Bao, "Slow and fast light via SBS in optical fibers for short pulses and broadband pump," Opt. Exp. 14, 12 693-12 703 (2006).

M. G. Herráez, K. Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 1395-1400 (2006).

E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 5877-5884 (2006).

B. Zhang, Y.-S. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gb/s differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, "Applications of slow light in telecommunications," Opt. Photon. News 17, 19-23 (2006).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, M. Martinelli, "Linear and nonlinear pulse propagation in coupled resonator slow-wave optical structures ," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365-379 (2003).

Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. (2)

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, A. E. Willner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 71, 023 801-1-023 801-4 (2005).

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, "Slow light with large fractional delays by spectral hole-burning in rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 74, 033 801-1-033 801-4 (2006).

Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top. (1)

Z. Wang, S. Fan, "Compact all-pass filters in photonic crystals as the building block for high-capacity optical delay lines," Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 68, 066 616-1-066 616-4 (2003).

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E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumelyuk, S. Odoulov, "Light pulse slowing down up to 0.025 cm/s by photorefractive two-wave coupling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083 902-1-083 902-4 (2003).

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, M. Lipson, "Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123 901.1-123 901.4 (2006).

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Proc. IEEE (1)

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