Abstract

We investigate both theoretically and experimentally how the use of an all-optical decision element (ODE) in front of a conventional receiver improves, in return-to-zero (RZ) systems, the receiver performance when the signal bandwidth exceeds the bandwidth of the available optoelectronic components. A theoretical analysis of the ODE behavior shows the field of applicability of the investigated solution. The experimental evaluation of the performance improvement in an RZ system is realized using an ODE based on two cascaded nonlinear optical loop mirrors. Benefits in terms of bit error rate for different signal bandwidths and for a different received optical signal-to-noise ratio are presented. Substantial agreement of the experimental results with the theoretical analysis is obtained. The impact of the ODE in the presence of relevant thermal noise at the receiver is also considered. The ODE can extend the use of common band-limited receivers to wide-bandwidth signals and can be an alternative solution to the development of wideband receivers.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. E. Le Rouzic, S. Gosselin, "160-Gb/s optical networking: A prospective techno-economical analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3024-3033 (2005).
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  5. M. Muratami, T. Matsuda, T. Imai, "Quarter terabit (25 $\times$ 10 Gb/s) over 9288 km WDM transmission experiment using nonlinear supported RZ pulse in higher order fiber dispersion managed line ," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 79-81.
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2005

E. Le Rouzic, S. Gosselin, "160-Gb/s optical networking: A prospective techno-economical analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3024-3033 (2005).

J. P. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Lehmann, H. Rohde, W. Schairer, Y. R. Zhou, E. S. R. Sikora, A. Lord, D. B. Payne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "160 Gb/s OTDM networking using deployed fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 225-235 (2005).

L.-S. Yan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, A. B. Sahin, J. E. McGeehan, T. Luo, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, "Performance optimization of RZ data format in WDM systems using tunable pulse-width management at the transmitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1063-1067 (2005).

H. Murai, M. Kagawa, H. Tsuji, K. Fujii, "80-Gb/s error-free transmission over 5600 km using a cross absorption modulation based optical 3R regenerator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1965-1967 (2005).

G. Gavioli, V. Mikhailov, B. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of transmission with cascaded all-optical 3R regenerators and variable inter-regenerator spacing," Electron. Lett. 41, 146-148 (2005).

2004

Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, I. Bennion, "10-Gb/s transmission over 100 Mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526-2528 (2004).

A. Bogoni, P. Ghelfi, M. Scaffardi, L. Potì, "All-optical regeneration and demultiplexing for 160 Gb/s transmission systems using a NOLM-based three-stage scheme," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 192-196 (2004).

N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, T. Tsuritani, A. Agata, N. Edagawa, S. Akiba, "Benefit of SPM-based all-optical reshaper in receiver for long-haul DWDM transmission systems ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 412-420 (2004).

2003

M. Meissner, M. Rosch, B. Schmauss, G. Leuchs, "12 dB of noise reduction by a NOLM-based 2-R regenerator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1297-1299 (2003).

2001

P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser, W. R. Leeb, "Optimum filter bandwidths for optically preamplified NRZ receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1263-1273 (2001).

M. Suzuki, H. Toda, A. H. Liang, A. Hasegawa, "Improvement of amplitude and phase margins in an RZ optical receiver using Kerr nonlinearity in normal dispersion fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1248-1250 (2001).

2000

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).

P. S. Cho, P. Sinha, D. Mahgerefteh, G. M. Carter, "All-optical regeneration at the receiver of 10-Gb/s RZ data transmitted over 30 000 km using an electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 205-207 (2000).

1988

Electron. Lett.

G. Gavioli, V. Mikhailov, B. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of transmission with cascaded all-optical 3R regenerators and variable inter-regenerator spacing," Electron. Lett. 41, 146-148 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

A. Bogoni, P. Ghelfi, M. Scaffardi, L. Potì, "All-optical regeneration and demultiplexing for 160 Gb/s transmission systems using a NOLM-based three-stage scheme," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 192-196 (2004).

N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, T. Tsuritani, A. Agata, N. Edagawa, S. Akiba, "Benefit of SPM-based all-optical reshaper in receiver for long-haul DWDM transmission systems ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 412-420 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Suzuki, H. Toda, A. H. Liang, A. Hasegawa, "Improvement of amplitude and phase margins in an RZ optical receiver using Kerr nonlinearity in normal dispersion fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1248-1250 (2001).

M. Meissner, M. Rosch, B. Schmauss, G. Leuchs, "12 dB of noise reduction by a NOLM-based 2-R regenerator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1297-1299 (2003).

Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, I. Bennion, "10-Gb/s transmission over 100 Mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526-2528 (2004).

P. S. Cho, P. Sinha, D. Mahgerefteh, G. M. Carter, "All-optical regeneration at the receiver of 10-Gb/s RZ data transmitted over 30 000 km using an electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 205-207 (2000).

H. Murai, M. Kagawa, H. Tsuji, K. Fujii, "80-Gb/s error-free transmission over 5600 km using a cross absorption modulation based optical 3R regenerator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1965-1967 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol.

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).

P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser, W. R. Leeb, "Optimum filter bandwidths for optically preamplified NRZ receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1263-1273 (2001).

E. Le Rouzic, S. Gosselin, "160-Gb/s optical networking: A prospective techno-economical analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3024-3033 (2005).

J. P. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Lehmann, H. Rohde, W. Schairer, Y. R. Zhou, E. S. R. Sikora, A. Lord, D. B. Payne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "160 Gb/s OTDM networking using deployed fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 225-235 (2005).

L.-S. Yan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, A. B. Sahin, J. E. McGeehan, T. Luo, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, "Performance optimization of RZ data format in WDM systems using tunable pulse-width management at the transmitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1063-1067 (2005).

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2001) pp. 312-313.

M. Muratami, T. Matsuda, T. Imai, "Quarter terabit (25 $\times$ 10 Gb/s) over 9288 km WDM transmission experiment using nonlinear supported RZ pulse in higher order fiber dispersion managed line ," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 79-81.

H. Rohde, C. Lehmann, W. Schairer, "Towards a meshed ultra high speed TDM optical network: Concept, OADM architecture and proof of principle," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper TuH6.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Rayon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinitser, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headly, B. J. Eggleton, "Enhanced 40-Gb/s receiver sensitivity with all-fiber optical 2R regenerator," Proc. CLEO (2002) pp. 534-535.

M. Matsuura, N. Kishi, T. Miki, "Performance improvement of optical RZ-receiver by utilizing semiconductor-based waveform converter ," Proc. LEOS (2004) pp. 392-393.

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