Abstract

In long-haul frequency-division-multiplexing lightwave transmission systems, transmission characteristics are degraded by four-wave mixing (FWM) generated in optical fibers. To overcome this problem, modified repeated unequally spaced (RUS) allocations such as equally spaced RUS (ERUS) and unequally spaced RUS (URUS) allocations have already been examined. In addition, it has been shown that FWM noises decrease by separating signal frequencies and a zero-dispersion frequency in equally spaced (ES) allocations. In this paper, ES, ERUS, and URUS allocations are studied from the viewpoint of the position of the zero-dispersion frequency relative to the signal frequencies. It is revealed that FWM noises are reduced in ES, ERUS, and URUS, with an increase in the separation between the signal frequencies and the zero-dispersion frequency, and FWM noises in ERUS and URUS are much lower than FWM noises in ES.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. A. R. Chraplyvy, "Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearities," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1548-1557 (1990).
  2. K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, R. I. MacDonald, "CW three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098-5106 (1978).
  3. K. Inoue, "Suppression technique for fiber four-wave mixing using optical multi-/demultiplexers and a delay line," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 455-461 (1993).
  4. K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, H. Ikeda, "FWM crosstalk reduction using bit-phase arranged RZ(BARZ) signals in WDM systems," Proc. OECC (1996) pp. 114-115.
  5. A. Okada, V. Curri, S. M. Gemelos, L. G. Kazovsky, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk using a novel hybrid WDM/TDM technique," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 289-290.
  6. K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, N. Kikuchi, "10 Gb/s four-channel wavelength- and polarization-division multiplexing transmission over 340 km with 0.5 nm channel spacing," Electron. Lett. 31, 49-50 (1995).
  7. I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, A. Chipouras, T. Sphicopoulos, "New techniques for the suppression of the four-wave mixing-induced distortion in nonzero dispersion fiber WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1137-1144 (2005).
  8. F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 754-756 (1994).
  9. F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, "WDM systems with unequally spaced channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 889-897 (1995).
  10. H. Suzuki, S. Ohteru, N. Takachio, "22 $\times$ 10 Gb/s WDM transmission based on extended method of unequally spaced channel allocation around the zero-dispersion wavelength region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1677-1679 (1999).
  11. A. Boskovic, S. Ten, V. L. da Silva, "FWM penalty reduction in dense WDM systems through channel detuning," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 163-164.
  12. J. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, C. S. Park, "Periodic allocation of a set of unequally spaced channels for WDM systems adopting dispersion-shifted fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 825-827 (1998).
  13. S. S. Lee, M. K. Kim, C. S. Park, J. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, S. G. Lee, "Enhancement of power margin and scalability in WDM links adopting dispersion-shifted fibres using periodic-unequally-spaced-channel allocation," Electron. Lett. 35, 1176-1177 (1999).
  14. T. Numai, O. Kubota, "Analysis of repeated unequally spaced channels for FDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 656-664 (2000).
  15. S. Kojima, T. Numai, "Theoretical analysis of modified repeated unequally spaced frequency allocation in FDM lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2786-2797 (2006).
  16. K. Inoue, "Four-wave mixing in an optical fiber in the zero-dispersion wavelength region," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1553-1561 (1992).
  17. M. Jinno, T. Sakamoto, J. Kani, S. Aisawa, K. Oda, M. Fukui, H. Ono, M. Yamada, K. Oguti, "1580-nm band, equally spaced 8 $\times$ 10 Gb/s WDM channel transmission over 360 km (3 $\times$ 120 km) of dispersion-shifted fiber avoiding FWM impairment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 454-456 (1998).
  18. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, "Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength ," Phys. Rev. 137, A801-A818 (1965).
  19. G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
  20. K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four-wave mixing in multichannel transmissions ," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).
  21. S. Fujita, M. Kitamura, T. Torikai, N. Henmi, H. Yamada, T. Suzaki, I. Takano, M. Shikada, "10 Gb/s, 100 km optical fibre transmission experiment using high-speed MQW DFB-LD and back-illuminated GaInAs APD," Electron. Lett. 25, 702-703 (1989).
  22. S. Fujita, T. Suzaki, A. Matsuoka, S. Miyazaki, T. Torikai, T. Nakata, M. Shikada, "High sensitivity 5 Gb/s optical receiver module using Si IC and GaInAs APD," Electron. Lett. 26, 175-176 (1990).
  23. K. Inoue, H. Toba, K. Oda, "Influence of fiber four-wave mixing on multichannel FSK direct detection transmission systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 350-360 (1992).

2006 (1)

S. Kojima, T. Numai, "Theoretical analysis of modified repeated unequally spaced frequency allocation in FDM lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2786-2797 (2006).

2005 (1)

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, A. Chipouras, T. Sphicopoulos, "New techniques for the suppression of the four-wave mixing-induced distortion in nonzero dispersion fiber WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1137-1144 (2005).

2000 (1)

T. Numai, O. Kubota, "Analysis of repeated unequally spaced channels for FDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 656-664 (2000).

1999 (2)

S. S. Lee, M. K. Kim, C. S. Park, J. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, S. G. Lee, "Enhancement of power margin and scalability in WDM links adopting dispersion-shifted fibres using periodic-unequally-spaced-channel allocation," Electron. Lett. 35, 1176-1177 (1999).

H. Suzuki, S. Ohteru, N. Takachio, "22 $\times$ 10 Gb/s WDM transmission based on extended method of unequally spaced channel allocation around the zero-dispersion wavelength region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1677-1679 (1999).

1998 (2)

J. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, C. S. Park, "Periodic allocation of a set of unequally spaced channels for WDM systems adopting dispersion-shifted fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 825-827 (1998).

M. Jinno, T. Sakamoto, J. Kani, S. Aisawa, K. Oda, M. Fukui, H. Ono, M. Yamada, K. Oguti, "1580-nm band, equally spaced 8 $\times$ 10 Gb/s WDM channel transmission over 360 km (3 $\times$ 120 km) of dispersion-shifted fiber avoiding FWM impairment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 454-456 (1998).

1995 (2)

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, "WDM systems with unequally spaced channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 889-897 (1995).

K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, N. Kikuchi, "10 Gb/s four-channel wavelength- and polarization-division multiplexing transmission over 340 km with 0.5 nm channel spacing," Electron. Lett. 31, 49-50 (1995).

1994 (2)

F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 754-756 (1994).

K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four-wave mixing in multichannel transmissions ," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).

1993 (1)

K. Inoue, "Suppression technique for fiber four-wave mixing using optical multi-/demultiplexers and a delay line," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 455-461 (1993).

1992 (2)

K. Inoue, "Four-wave mixing in an optical fiber in the zero-dispersion wavelength region," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1553-1561 (1992).

K. Inoue, H. Toba, K. Oda, "Influence of fiber four-wave mixing on multichannel FSK direct detection transmission systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 350-360 (1992).

1990 (2)

S. Fujita, T. Suzaki, A. Matsuoka, S. Miyazaki, T. Torikai, T. Nakata, M. Shikada, "High sensitivity 5 Gb/s optical receiver module using Si IC and GaInAs APD," Electron. Lett. 26, 175-176 (1990).

A. R. Chraplyvy, "Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearities," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1548-1557 (1990).

1989 (1)

S. Fujita, M. Kitamura, T. Torikai, N. Henmi, H. Yamada, T. Suzaki, I. Takano, M. Shikada, "10 Gb/s, 100 km optical fibre transmission experiment using high-speed MQW DFB-LD and back-illuminated GaInAs APD," Electron. Lett. 25, 702-703 (1989).

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, R. I. MacDonald, "CW three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098-5106 (1978).

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).

1965 (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, "Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength ," Phys. Rev. 137, A801-A818 (1965).

Electron. Lett. (4)

K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, N. Kikuchi, "10 Gb/s four-channel wavelength- and polarization-division multiplexing transmission over 340 km with 0.5 nm channel spacing," Electron. Lett. 31, 49-50 (1995).

S. S. Lee, M. K. Kim, C. S. Park, J. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, S. G. Lee, "Enhancement of power margin and scalability in WDM links adopting dispersion-shifted fibres using periodic-unequally-spaced-channel allocation," Electron. Lett. 35, 1176-1177 (1999).

S. Fujita, M. Kitamura, T. Torikai, N. Henmi, H. Yamada, T. Suzaki, I. Takano, M. Shikada, "10 Gb/s, 100 km optical fibre transmission experiment using high-speed MQW DFB-LD and back-illuminated GaInAs APD," Electron. Lett. 25, 702-703 (1989).

S. Fujita, T. Suzaki, A. Matsuoka, S. Miyazaki, T. Torikai, T. Nakata, M. Shikada, "High sensitivity 5 Gb/s optical receiver module using Si IC and GaInAs APD," Electron. Lett. 26, 175-176 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

M. Jinno, T. Sakamoto, J. Kani, S. Aisawa, K. Oda, M. Fukui, H. Ono, M. Yamada, K. Oguti, "1580-nm band, equally spaced 8 $\times$ 10 Gb/s WDM channel transmission over 360 km (3 $\times$ 120 km) of dispersion-shifted fiber avoiding FWM impairment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 454-456 (1998).

H. Suzuki, S. Ohteru, N. Takachio, "22 $\times$ 10 Gb/s WDM transmission based on extended method of unequally spaced channel allocation around the zero-dispersion wavelength region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1677-1679 (1999).

J. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, C. S. Park, "Periodic allocation of a set of unequally spaced channels for WDM systems adopting dispersion-shifted fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 825-827 (1998).

F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 754-756 (1994).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, R. I. MacDonald, "CW three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098-5106 (1978).

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four-wave mixing in multichannel transmissions ," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).

K. Inoue, H. Toba, K. Oda, "Influence of fiber four-wave mixing on multichannel FSK direct detection transmission systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 350-360 (1992).

K. Inoue, "Suppression technique for fiber four-wave mixing using optical multi-/demultiplexers and a delay line," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 455-461 (1993).

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, "WDM systems with unequally spaced channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 889-897 (1995).

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, A. Chipouras, T. Sphicopoulos, "New techniques for the suppression of the four-wave mixing-induced distortion in nonzero dispersion fiber WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1137-1144 (2005).

A. R. Chraplyvy, "Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearities," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1548-1557 (1990).

T. Numai, O. Kubota, "Analysis of repeated unequally spaced channels for FDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 656-664 (2000).

S. Kojima, T. Numai, "Theoretical analysis of modified repeated unequally spaced frequency allocation in FDM lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2786-2797 (2006).

K. Inoue, "Four-wave mixing in an optical fiber in the zero-dispersion wavelength region," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1553-1561 (1992).

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, "Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength ," Phys. Rev. 137, A801-A818 (1965).

Other (3)

A. Boskovic, S. Ten, V. L. da Silva, "FWM penalty reduction in dense WDM systems through channel detuning," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 163-164.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, H. Ikeda, "FWM crosstalk reduction using bit-phase arranged RZ(BARZ) signals in WDM systems," Proc. OECC (1996) pp. 114-115.

A. Okada, V. Curri, S. M. Gemelos, L. G. Kazovsky, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk using a novel hybrid WDM/TDM technique," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 289-290.

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