Abstract

We present the results of an experimental study of waveguide tapers realized in LiNbO<sub>3</sub> using the soft-proton-exchange process and the waveguide segmentation technique. Measurements show that they can be favorably introduced between the nonlinear or electrooptic part of the components, which require strong mode confinement to increase efficiency, and the coupling section with a standard optical fiber, which requires low mode confinement in order to have low coupling losses. These tapers allow almost lossless mode-shape transformation. Preliminary results show that they allow reducing the coupling losses by up to 0.7 dB, thus proving the practical interest of the approach.

© 2007 IEEE

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2005 (2)

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).

O. Alibart, S. Tanzilli, D. B. Ostrowsky, P. Baldi, "Guided wave technology for telecom wavelength heralded single photon source," Opt. Lett. 30, 1539-1541 (2005).

2001 (1)

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, E. A. Baranov, M. V. Proyaeva, T. V. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Segato, C. Sada, S. M. Kostritskii, "Characterization of alpha-phase soft proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 18, 1186-1191 (2001).

2000 (1)

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. De Micheli, L. Huang, D. J. Bamford, "Soft proton exchange on PPLN: A simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient non-linear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).

1999 (3)

D. Ortega, J. M. Aldariz, J. M. Arnold, J. S. Aitchison, "Analysis of ‘Quasi-Modes’ in periodic segmented waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 369-375 (1999).

P. Aschieri, V. Rastogi, L. Chanvillard, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, G. Bellanca, P. Bassi, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, "Experimental observation of longitudinal modulation of mode fields in periodically segmented waveguides," Appl. Opt. 38, 5734-5737 (1999).

F. Fogli, G. Bellanca, P. Bassi, I. Madden, W. Johnstone, "Highly efficient full vectorial 3D BPM modeling of polished fiber couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 136-143 (1999).

1998 (1)

M. M. Spuhler, B. J. Offrein, G. Bona, R. Germann, I. Massarek, D. Ern, "A very short planar silica spot-size converter using a nonperiodic segmented waveguide ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1680-1685 (1998).

1996 (3)

1995 (2)

F. Dorgeuille, B. Mersali, S. Francois, G. Herve-Gruyer, M. Filoche, "Spot size transformer with a periodically segmented waveguide based on InP," Opt. Lett. 20, 581-583 (1995).

Z. Weissman, I. Hendel, "Analysis of periodically segmented waveguide mode expanders," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2053-2058 (1995).

1993 (3)

M. Yanagisawa, Y. Yamada, M. Kobayashi, "Low-loss and large tolerance fiber coupling of high-Δ silica waveguides by local mode-field conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 433-435 (1993).

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, Y. Noguchi, "A simple laterally tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 345-347 (1993).

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, "Modes of periodically segmented waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1831-1838 (1993).

1992 (1)

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, "2-D Mode tapering via tapered channel waveguide segmentation," Electron. Lett. 28, 1514-1516 (1992).

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

P. G. Suchoski, R. V. Ramaswamy, "Constant-width variable-index transition for efficient Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide-fiber coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1246-1251 (1987).

1986 (1)

C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. della Mea, P. Mazzoldi, S. M. Al Shukri, A. C. G. Nutt, R. M. De La Rue, "Structural characterization of proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2643-2649 (1986).

1985 (1)

R. Regener, W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 36, 143-147 (1985).

1984 (1)

G. J. Griffiths, R. J. Esdaile, "Analysis of titanium diffused planar optical waveguides in lithium niobate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 149-159 (1984).

1982 (2)

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, "Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607-608 (1982).

R. C. Alferness, V. R. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, L. L. Buhl, "Efficient single-mode fiber to titanium diffused lithium niobate waveguide coupling for λ = 1.32 μm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1807-1813 (1982).

1975 (1)

M. L. Shah, "Optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by ion exchange technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 652-653 (1975).

1974 (1)

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

R. Regener, W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 36, 143-147 (1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. L. Shah, "Optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by ion exchange technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 652-653 (1975).

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, "Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607-608 (1982).

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. De Micheli, L. Huang, D. J. Bamford, "Soft proton exchange on PPLN: A simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient non-linear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, "2-D Mode tapering via tapered channel waveguide segmentation," Electron. Lett. 28, 1514-1516 (1992).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. C. Alferness, V. R. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, L. L. Buhl, "Efficient single-mode fiber to titanium diffused lithium niobate waveguide coupling for λ = 1.32 μm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1807-1813 (1982).

G. J. Griffiths, R. J. Esdaile, "Analysis of titanium diffused planar optical waveguides in lithium niobate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 149-159 (1984).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, "Structural phase diagram of HxLi1-xNbO3 waveguides: The correlation between optical and structural properties," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 187-196 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Yanagisawa, Y. Yamada, M. Kobayashi, "Low-loss and large tolerance fiber coupling of high-Δ silica waveguides by local mode-field conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 433-435 (1993).

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, Y. Noguchi, "A simple laterally tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 345-347 (1993).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. della Mea, P. Mazzoldi, S. M. Al Shukri, A. C. G. Nutt, R. M. De La Rue, "Structural characterization of proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2643-2649 (1986).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).

P. G. Suchoski, R. V. Ramaswamy, "Constant-width variable-index transition for efficient Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide-fiber coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1246-1251 (1987).

Z. Weissman, I. Hendel, "Analysis of periodically segmented waveguide mode expanders," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2053-2058 (1995).

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, "Modes of periodically segmented waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1831-1838 (1993).

D. Ortega, J. M. Aldariz, J. M. Arnold, J. S. Aitchison, "Analysis of ‘Quasi-Modes’ in periodic segmented waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 369-375 (1999).

F. Fogli, G. Bellanca, P. Bassi, I. Madden, W. Johnstone, "Highly efficient full vectorial 3D BPM modeling of polished fiber couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 136-143 (1999).

M. M. Spuhler, B. J. Offrein, G. Bona, R. Germann, I. Massarek, D. Ern, "A very short planar silica spot-size converter using a nonperiodic segmented waveguide ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1680-1685 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. (1)

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, E. A. Baranov, M. V. Proyaeva, T. V. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Segato, C. Sada, S. M. Kostritskii, "Characterization of alpha-phase soft proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 18, 1186-1191 (2001).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides in bonded InP-membranes," 32nd Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) CannesFrance (2006) Paper Tu1.4.5.

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