Abstract

An improved phase-locked loop (PLL) for versatile synchronization of a sampling pulse train to an optical data stream is presented. It enables optical sampling of the true waveform of repetitive high bit-rate optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) data words such as pseudorandom bit sequences. Visualization of the true waveform can reveal details, which cause systematic bit errors. Such errors cannot be inferred from eye diagrams and require word-synchronous sampling. The programmable direct-digital-synthesis circuit used in our novel PLL approach allows flexible adaption of virtually any problem-specific synchronization scenario, including those required for waveform sampling, for jitter measurements by slope detection, and for classical eye-diagrams. Phase comparison of the PLL is performed at 10-GHz OTDM base clock rate, leading to a residual synchronization jitter of less than 70 fs.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tb/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
  2. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1088-1099 (2005).
  3. N. Yamada, H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, "Polarization-insensitive optical sampling system using two KTP Crystals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 215-217 (2004).
  4. M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinearity-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2012-2022 (2005).
  5. I. Kang, K. Dreyer, "Sensitive 320 Gb/s eye diagram measurements via optical sampling with semiconductor optical amplifier-ultrafast nonlinear interferometer," Electron. Lett. 39, 1081-1083 (2003).
  6. C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, M. G. Raymer, "Linear optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746-1768 (2003).
  7. E. Benkler, H. R. Telle, K. Weingarten, L. Krainer, G. Spühler, U. Keller, "Characterization of ultrashort optical pulse properties by amplitude-modulation-balanced heterodyne gating," Opt. Lett. 30, 2016-2018 (2005).
  8. C. Dorrer, "Monitoring of optical signals from constellation diagrams measured with linear optical sampling ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 313-321 (2006).
  9. C. Dorrer, "High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 843-858 (2006).
  10. M. Attygalle, Y. J. Wen, "Injection-locked Fabry–Pérot laser with electronic feedback for clock recovery from high-speed OTDM signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 478-480 (2006).
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  12. L. Cordesses, "Direct digital synthesis: A tool for periodic wave generation (Part 2)," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 21, 110-112 (2004).
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  14. H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, M. Engelbrecht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, "Stable sub-85 fs passively mode-locked Erbium fiber oscillator with tunable repetition rate ," Opt. Express 12, 3178-3183 (2004).
  15. A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, L. Hollberg, "Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references," Opt. Lett. 30, 667-669 (2005).
  16. S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Ohta, Y. Endo, "Generation of gain-switched optical pulses with very low timing jitter by using external CW-light injection seeding," Electron. Lett. 36, 235-236 (2000).

2006

C. Dorrer, "Monitoring of optical signals from constellation diagrams measured with linear optical sampling ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 313-321 (2006).

C. Dorrer, "High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 843-858 (2006).

M. Attygalle, Y. J. Wen, "Injection-locked Fabry–Pérot laser with electronic feedback for clock recovery from high-speed OTDM signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 478-480 (2006).

2005

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1088-1099 (2005).

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinearity-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2012-2022 (2005).

E. Benkler, H. R. Telle, K. Weingarten, L. Krainer, G. Spühler, U. Keller, "Characterization of ultrashort optical pulse properties by amplitude-modulation-balanced heterodyne gating," Opt. Lett. 30, 2016-2018 (2005).

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, L. Hollberg, "Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references," Opt. Lett. 30, 667-669 (2005).

2004

H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, M. Engelbrecht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, "Stable sub-85 fs passively mode-locked Erbium fiber oscillator with tunable repetition rate ," Opt. Express 12, 3178-3183 (2004).

N. Yamada, H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, "Polarization-insensitive optical sampling system using two KTP Crystals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 215-217 (2004).

L. Cordesses, "Direct digital synthesis: A tool for periodic wave generation (Part 1)," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 21, 50-54 (2004).

L. Cordesses, "Direct digital synthesis: A tool for periodic wave generation (Part 2)," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 21, 110-112 (2004).

2003

I. Kang, K. Dreyer, "Sensitive 320 Gb/s eye diagram measurements via optical sampling with semiconductor optical amplifier-ultrafast nonlinear interferometer," Electron. Lett. 39, 1081-1083 (2003).

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, M. G. Raymer, "Linear optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746-1768 (2003).

2002

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, U. Keller, "Tunable picosecond pulse-generating laser with a repetition rate exceeding 10 GHz," Electron. Lett. 38, 225-227 (2002).

2000

S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Ohta, Y. Endo, "Generation of gain-switched optical pulses with very low timing jitter by using external CW-light injection seeding," Electron. Lett. 36, 235-236 (2000).

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tb/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).

Electron. Lett.

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tb/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).

I. Kang, K. Dreyer, "Sensitive 320 Gb/s eye diagram measurements via optical sampling with semiconductor optical amplifier-ultrafast nonlinear interferometer," Electron. Lett. 39, 1081-1083 (2003).

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, U. Keller, "Tunable picosecond pulse-generating laser with a repetition rate exceeding 10 GHz," Electron. Lett. 38, 225-227 (2002).

S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Ohta, Y. Endo, "Generation of gain-switched optical pulses with very low timing jitter by using external CW-light injection seeding," Electron. Lett. 36, 235-236 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

C. Dorrer, "High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 843-858 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Attygalle, Y. J. Wen, "Injection-locked Fabry–Pérot laser with electronic feedback for clock recovery from high-speed OTDM signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 478-480 (2006).

N. Yamada, H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, "Polarization-insensitive optical sampling system using two KTP Crystals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 215-217 (2004).

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, M. G. Raymer, "Linear optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746-1768 (2003).

IEEE Signal Process. Mag.

L. Cordesses, "Direct digital synthesis: A tool for periodic wave generation (Part 1)," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 21, 50-54 (2004).

L. Cordesses, "Direct digital synthesis: A tool for periodic wave generation (Part 2)," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 21, 110-112 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol.

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinearity-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2012-2022 (2005).

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1088-1099 (2005).

C. Dorrer, "Monitoring of optical signals from constellation diagrams measured with linear optical sampling ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 313-321 (2006).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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