Abstract

Increased interest in novel modulation formats for optical transmission has come up in recent years. Receivers with interferometric direct detection can be used to detect arbitrary modulation formats with differentially encoded phases as differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) and differentially phase-encoded star-shaped quadrature amplitude modulation (Star QAM). In this paper, two novel 16-ary modulation formats, which are the 16DPSK and the Star 16QAM (ASK-8DPSK), are characterized for optical transmission for the first time. To be able to identify clear performance tendencies for high-order optical modulation, the novel formats are compared to a wide range of already investigated formats by conducting comprehensive calculations in a uniform simulation environment. The influence of different transmitter structures and decision schemes is considered, and all the systems are characterized with respect to the optical signal-to-noise ratio requirements, dispersion tolerance, and self-phase-modulation (SPM) performance for nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) and RZ pulse shapes. Moreover, an inherent problem of Star QAM transmission concerning SPM is illustrated, and compensation techniques are examined. The results give a substantial insight into the properties of high-order optical modulation formats.

© 2007 IEEE

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References

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  1. M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Hanik, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, "Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems ," Electron. Lett. 36, 1483-1484 (1999).
  2. C. Wree, J. Leibrich, W. Rosenkranz, "Differential quadrature phase-shift keying for cost-effective doubling of the capacity in existing WDM systems," Proc. ITG-Fachtagung Photonische Netze (2003) pp. 161-168.
  3. M. Ohm, "Optical 8-DPSK and receiver with direct detection and multilevel electrical signals ," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Workshop Adv. Modulation Formats (2004) pp. 45-46.
  4. H. Yoon, D. Lee, N. Park, "Performance comparison of optical 8-ary differential phase-shift keying systems with different electrical decision schemes," Opt. Express 13, 371-376 (2005).
  5. W. Rosenkranz, "Robust multi-level phase shift modulation in high-speed WDM transmission," Proc. SPIE 5625, 241-252 (2005).
  6. M. Ohm, J. Speidel, "Receiver sensitivity, chromatic dispersion tolerance and optimal receiver bandwidths for 40 Gb/s 8-level optical ASK-DQPSK and optical 8-DPSK," Proc. 6th Conf. Photon. Netw. (2005) pp. 211-217.
  7. K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, T. Sugawara, "Proposal and demonstration of 10-Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gb/s) optical modulation/demodulation scheme," Proc. ECOC (2004) pp. 424-425.
  8. K. Kikushi, "Coherent detection of phase-shift keying signals using digital carrier-phase estimation ," Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OTuI4.
  9. M. Seimetz, "Performance of coherent optical square-16-QAM-systems based on IQ-Transmitters and homodyne receivers with digital phase estimation," Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper NWA4.
  10. M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, K. Kasai, J. Hongou, "20 Msymbol/s, 128 QAM coherent optical transmission over 500 km using heterodyne detection with frequency-stabilized laser," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) CannesFrance (2006) Paper Mo4.2.2.
  11. K.-P. Ho, H.-W. Cuei, "Generation of arbitrary quadrature signals using one dual-drive modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 764-770 (2005).
  12. M. Seimetz, C.-M. Weinert, "Options, feasibility and availability of 2 × 4 90 ∘-hybrids for coherent optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1317-1322 (2006).
  13. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).
  14. K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Omptical Communication Systems (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

2006 (1)

M. Seimetz, C.-M. Weinert, "Options, feasibility and availability of 2 × 4 90 ∘-hybrids for coherent optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1317-1322 (2006).

2005 (3)

H. Yoon, D. Lee, N. Park, "Performance comparison of optical 8-ary differential phase-shift keying systems with different electrical decision schemes," Opt. Express 13, 371-376 (2005).

W. Rosenkranz, "Robust multi-level phase shift modulation in high-speed WDM transmission," Proc. SPIE 5625, 241-252 (2005).

K.-P. Ho, H.-W. Cuei, "Generation of arbitrary quadrature signals using one dual-drive modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 764-770 (2005).

1999 (1)

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Hanik, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, "Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems ," Electron. Lett. 36, 1483-1484 (1999).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Hanik, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, "Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems ," Electron. Lett. 36, 1483-1484 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

K.-P. Ho, H.-W. Cuei, "Generation of arbitrary quadrature signals using one dual-drive modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 764-770 (2005).

M. Seimetz, C.-M. Weinert, "Options, feasibility and availability of 2 × 4 90 ∘-hybrids for coherent optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1317-1322 (2006).

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Rosenkranz, "Robust multi-level phase shift modulation in high-speed WDM transmission," Proc. SPIE 5625, 241-252 (2005).

Other (9)

M. Ohm, J. Speidel, "Receiver sensitivity, chromatic dispersion tolerance and optimal receiver bandwidths for 40 Gb/s 8-level optical ASK-DQPSK and optical 8-DPSK," Proc. 6th Conf. Photon. Netw. (2005) pp. 211-217.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, T. Sugawara, "Proposal and demonstration of 10-Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gb/s) optical modulation/demodulation scheme," Proc. ECOC (2004) pp. 424-425.

K. Kikushi, "Coherent detection of phase-shift keying signals using digital carrier-phase estimation ," Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OTuI4.

M. Seimetz, "Performance of coherent optical square-16-QAM-systems based on IQ-Transmitters and homodyne receivers with digital phase estimation," Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper NWA4.

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, K. Kasai, J. Hongou, "20 Msymbol/s, 128 QAM coherent optical transmission over 500 km using heterodyne detection with frequency-stabilized laser," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) CannesFrance (2006) Paper Mo4.2.2.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).

K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Omptical Communication Systems (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

C. Wree, J. Leibrich, W. Rosenkranz, "Differential quadrature phase-shift keying for cost-effective doubling of the capacity in existing WDM systems," Proc. ITG-Fachtagung Photonische Netze (2003) pp. 161-168.

M. Ohm, "Optical 8-DPSK and receiver with direct detection and multilevel electrical signals ," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Workshop Adv. Modulation Formats (2004) pp. 45-46.

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