Abstract

The impact of the extinction ratio (ER) on the performance of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero transmission system over standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) is presented. Several dispersion maps are analyzed in order to minimize the distortion due to the intrachannel nonlinear effects, namely, intrachannel cross-phase modulation and intrachannel four wave mixing (IFWM). The decrease of the ER until a specific value leads to an increase of the intensity distortion, which is mainly due to IFWM. As a consequence, two distinct transmission regimes are identified, depending on the input average power of each section and the ER of the optical signals. The first regime has previously been called the pseudolinear regime in the literature and occurs when high ERs are considered. The optimum dispersion map of this regime has a given optical precompensation and a total residual dispersion near zero. The second regime occurs with the decrease of the ER. Under such a circumstance, the optimum dispersion map obtained in the pseudolinear regime leads to significant degradation, which is mainly due to ghost pulses appearing in the symbol “0.” This effect can be reduced by a system with residual dispersion that is significantly different from zero, leading to a detected eye pattern with low degradation in the symbol “0” but high timing jitter, which limits the use of such signals in feasible transmission systems. We call this new regime pseudosolitonic as the intrachannel nonlinear effects are apparently reduced by the residual group velocity dispersion (as it is observed in the solitonic regime occurring at lower bit rates), but strong waveform degradation occurs along the SSMF transmission. The exact value of ER for which the change between the two transmission regimes is observed depends on the optical average power at the input of each section. A simple expression to predict the system conditions (namely, ER, input average power of each section, and number of sections) for which the transition between the two regimes occurs is proposed, and its validity is analyzed.

© 2007 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, "Intra-channel cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in high-speed TDM systems ," Electron. Lett. 35, 1576-1578 (1999).
  2. P. Mamyshev, N. Mamysheva, "Pulse-overlapped dispersion-managed data transmission and intrachannel four-wave mixing ," Opt. Lett. 24, 1454-1456 (1999).
  3. R. Killey, H. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, P. Bayvel, "Reduction of intra-channel nonlinear distortion in 40 Gb/s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1624-1626 (2000).
  4. R. Essiambre, G. Raybon, B. Mikkelsen, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B—Systems and Impairments (Academic, 2002) pp. 232-304.
  5. D. Breuer, K. Petermann, "Comparison of NRZ- and RZ-modulation formats for 40 Gb/s TDM standard-fiber systems ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 398-400 (1997).
  6. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).
  7. J. Rebola, A. Cartaxo, "Q-factor estimation and impact of spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise on the performance of optically preamplified systems with arbitrary optical filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 87-95 (2003).
  8. J. Rebola, A. Cartaxo, "Power penalty assessment in optically preamplified receivers with arbitrary optical filtering and signal-dependent noise dominance," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 401-408 (2002).
  9. D. Penninckx, "Optically preamplified systems: Defining a new aperture," Proc. OFC (1998) pp. 220-221.
  10. D. Fonseca, A. Cartaxo, "On the transition to pseudolinear regime in dispersion managed systems with NRZ, RZ and duobinary signal formats," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—J Optoelectron. 152, 181-187 (2005).
  11. J. Elbers, A. Farbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, "Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 276-281 (2000).
  12. A. Mecozzi, C. Clausen, M. Shtaif, S. Park, A. Gnauck, "Cancellation of timing and amplitude jitter in symmetric links using highly dispersed pulses ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 445-447 (2001).
  13. International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) Recommendation G.959.1 (12/2003)Optical Transport Network Physical Layer Interfaces (2003).
  14. S. Vorbeck, M. Schneiders, "Cumulative nonlinear phase shift as engineering rule for performance estimation in 160 Gb/s transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2571-2573 (2004).
  15. Y. Frignac, S. Bigo, "Numerical optimization of residual dispersion in dispersion-managed systems at 40 Gb/s ," Proc. OFC (2000) pp. 48-50.
  16. J. Antona, S. Bigo, J. Faure, "Nonlinear cumulated phase as criterion to assess performance of terrestrial WDM systems ," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 365-367.

2005 (1)

D. Fonseca, A. Cartaxo, "On the transition to pseudolinear regime in dispersion managed systems with NRZ, RZ and duobinary signal formats," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—J Optoelectron. 152, 181-187 (2005).

2004 (1)

S. Vorbeck, M. Schneiders, "Cumulative nonlinear phase shift as engineering rule for performance estimation in 160 Gb/s transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2571-2573 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. Rebola, A. Cartaxo, "Q-factor estimation and impact of spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise on the performance of optically preamplified systems with arbitrary optical filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 87-95 (2003).

2002 (1)

J. Rebola, A. Cartaxo, "Power penalty assessment in optically preamplified receivers with arbitrary optical filtering and signal-dependent noise dominance," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 401-408 (2002).

2001 (1)

A. Mecozzi, C. Clausen, M. Shtaif, S. Park, A. Gnauck, "Cancellation of timing and amplitude jitter in symmetric links using highly dispersed pulses ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 445-447 (2001).

2000 (2)

R. Killey, H. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, P. Bayvel, "Reduction of intra-channel nonlinear distortion in 40 Gb/s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1624-1626 (2000).

J. Elbers, A. Farbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, "Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 276-281 (2000).

1999 (2)

R. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, "Intra-channel cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in high-speed TDM systems ," Electron. Lett. 35, 1576-1578 (1999).

P. Mamyshev, N. Mamysheva, "Pulse-overlapped dispersion-managed data transmission and intrachannel four-wave mixing ," Opt. Lett. 24, 1454-1456 (1999).

1997 (1)

D. Breuer, K. Petermann, "Comparison of NRZ- and RZ-modulation formats for 40 Gb/s TDM standard-fiber systems ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 398-400 (1997).

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, "Intra-channel cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in high-speed TDM systems ," Electron. Lett. 35, 1576-1578 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Elbers, A. Farbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, "Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 276-281 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

A. Mecozzi, C. Clausen, M. Shtaif, S. Park, A. Gnauck, "Cancellation of timing and amplitude jitter in symmetric links using highly dispersed pulses ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 445-447 (2001).

S. Vorbeck, M. Schneiders, "Cumulative nonlinear phase shift as engineering rule for performance estimation in 160 Gb/s transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2571-2573 (2004).

R. Killey, H. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, P. Bayvel, "Reduction of intra-channel nonlinear distortion in 40 Gb/s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1624-1626 (2000).

D. Breuer, K. Petermann, "Comparison of NRZ- and RZ-modulation formats for 40 Gb/s TDM standard-fiber systems ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 398-400 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

J. Rebola, A. Cartaxo, "Q-factor estimation and impact of spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise on the performance of optically preamplified systems with arbitrary optical filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 87-95 (2003).

J. Rebola, A. Cartaxo, "Power penalty assessment in optically preamplified receivers with arbitrary optical filtering and signal-dependent noise dominance," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 401-408 (2002).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—J Optoelectron. (1)

D. Fonseca, A. Cartaxo, "On the transition to pseudolinear regime in dispersion managed systems with NRZ, RZ and duobinary signal formats," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—J Optoelectron. 152, 181-187 (2005).

Other (6)

Y. Frignac, S. Bigo, "Numerical optimization of residual dispersion in dispersion-managed systems at 40 Gb/s ," Proc. OFC (2000) pp. 48-50.

J. Antona, S. Bigo, J. Faure, "Nonlinear cumulated phase as criterion to assess performance of terrestrial WDM systems ," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 365-367.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) Recommendation G.959.1 (12/2003)Optical Transport Network Physical Layer Interfaces (2003).

R. Essiambre, G. Raybon, B. Mikkelsen, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B—Systems and Impairments (Academic, 2002) pp. 232-304.

D. Penninckx, "Optically preamplified systems: Defining a new aperture," Proc. OFC (1998) pp. 220-221.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.