Abstract

A general design rule for interleaved arrayed waveguide gratings (IAWGs) is derived. A 1×<i>N</i> WDM switch that is based on a phase shifter array, which is sandwiched between two <i>N</i>-IAWGs, is systematically analyzed. A practical design example of a 1 × 4 nonblocking wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) switch is detailed to illustrate the design steps and the required phase assignment of each phase shifter for various output states. Based on the reciprocity principle, a simplified structure of the 1×<i>N</i> WDM switch is proposed, which requires only one <i>N</i>-IAWG with total reflection implemented at the end of each phase shifter. This type of 1×<i>N</i> WDM switch can be used as a fundamental building block to construct the nonblocking <i>N</i> × <i>N</i> WDM all-optical switch that will be indispensable for future all-optical networks.

© 2007 IEEE

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References

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  2. C. R. Dorr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, R. Monnard, "Wavelength-division multiplexing cross connect in InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 117-119 (1998).
  3. C. G. P. Herben, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. R. Leys, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, "Polarization independent dilated WDM cross-connect on InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1599-1601 (1999).
  4. R. Hui, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).
  5. C. R. Doerr, "Proposed WDM cross connect using a planar arrangement of waveguide grating routers and phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 528-530 (1998).
  6. I. Kaminow, T. Li, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV A Components (Academic, 2002).
  7. H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide $N \times N$ wavelength multiplexer," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 447-455 (1995).
  8. M. Frank, BeamPROP AWG Utility Version 2.1, Utility Manual (Rsoft, Inc., 2003).
  9. C. Dragone, "Optimum design of a planar array of tapered waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 7, 2081-2091 (1990).
  10. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2000).
  11. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, J. A. Del Alamo, "Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).
  12. R. Hui, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).

2005 (1)

R. Hui, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).

2003 (1)

R. Hui, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).

1999 (1)

C. G. P. Herben, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. R. Leys, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, "Polarization independent dilated WDM cross-connect on InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1599-1601 (1999).

1998 (2)

C. R. Dorr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, R. Monnard, "Wavelength-division multiplexing cross connect in InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 117-119 (1998).

C. R. Doerr, "Proposed WDM cross connect using a planar arrangement of waveguide grating routers and phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 528-530 (1998).

1995 (1)

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide $N \times N$ wavelength multiplexer," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 447-455 (1995).

1990 (2)

C. Dragone, "Optimum design of a planar array of tapered waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 7, 2081-2091 (1990).

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, J. A. Del Alamo, "Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Hui, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, J. A. Del Alamo, "Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).

R. Hui, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. R. Doerr, "Proposed WDM cross connect using a planar arrangement of waveguide grating routers and phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 528-530 (1998).

C. R. Dorr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, R. Monnard, "Wavelength-division multiplexing cross connect in InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 117-119 (1998).

C. G. P. Herben, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. R. Leys, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, "Polarization independent dilated WDM cross-connect on InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1599-1601 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide $N \times N$ wavelength multiplexer," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 447-455 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. (1)

C. Dragone, "Optimum design of a planar array of tapered waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 7, 2081-2091 (1990).

Other (4)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2000).

M. Frank, BeamPROP AWG Utility Version 2.1, Utility Manual (Rsoft, Inc., 2003).

I. Kaminow, T. Li, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV A Components (Academic, 2002).

G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

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