Abstract

We present an architecture for implementing optical buffers, based on the feed-forward-buffer concept, that can truly emulate input queuing and accommodate asynchronous packet and burst operation. The architecture uses wavelength converters and fixed-length delay lines that are combined to form either a multiple-input buffer or a shared buffer. Both architectures are modular, allowing the expansion of the buffer at a cost that grows logarithmically with the buffer depth, where the cost is measured in terms of the number of switching elements, and wavelength converters are employed. The architectural design also provides a tradeoff between the number of wavelength converters and their tunability. The buffer architectures proposed are complemented with scheduling algorithms that can guarantee lossless communication and are evaluated using physical-layer simulations to obtain their performance in terms of bit-error rate and achievable buffer size.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2081-2094 (1998).
  2. I. Chlamtac, "CORD: Contention resolution by delay lines," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1014-1029 (1996).
  3. C. Guillemot, "Transparent optical packet switching: The European ACTS KEOPS project approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2117-2134 (1998).
  4. R. L. Cruz, J.-T. Tsai, "COD: Alternative architectures for high-speed packet switching," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4, 11-21 (1996).
  5. S. Bjørnstad, N. Stol, D. R. Hjelme, "An optical packet switch design with shared electronic buffering and low bit rate add/drop inputs ," Proc. Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw. (2002) pp. 69-72.
  6. R. V. Caenegem, "From IP over WDM to all-optical packet switching: Economical view," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1638-1645 (2006).
  7. E. F. Burmeister, J. E. Bowers, "Integrated gate matrix switch for optical packet buffering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 103-105 (2006).
  8. R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).
  9. M. C. Chia, "Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1241-1254 (2001).
  10. C. M. Gauger, "Dimensioning of FDL buffers for optical burst switching nodes," Proc. 6th IFIP Work. Conf. ONDM (2002) pp. 117-132.
  11. M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, T. Roughgarden, "Routers with very small buffers," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2006) pp. 1-11.
  12. D. K. Hunter, W. D. Cornwell, T. H. Gilfedder, A. Franzen, I. Andonovic, "SLOB: A switch with large optical buffers for packet switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1725-1736 (1998).
  13. E. A. Varvarigos, "The ‘packing’ and the ‘scheduling’ packet switch architectures for almost all-optical lossless networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1757-1767 (1998).
  14. D. K. Hunter, D. G. Smith, "New architectures for optical TDM switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 495-511 (1993).
  15. T. T. Lee, S. Y. Liew, "Parallel routing algorithms in Benes–Clos networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).
  16. N. Chi, S. Yu, "Optical subcarrier labeling transparent to the payload format using carrier suppression technique ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 971-973 (2006).
  17. Active Photonics User's Manual VPI ComponentMaker Ch. 5: Overview of the TLLM.
  18. E. Kehayas, "ARTEMIS: 40-Gb/s all-optical self-routing node and network architecture employing asynchronous bit and packet-level optical signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2967-2977 (2006).
  19. K. Tajima, "All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746-L1749 (1993).
  20. J. Leuthold, "All-optical Mach–Zehnder interferometer wavelength converters and switches with integrated data- and control-signal separation scheme," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1056-1066 (1999).
  21. V. Lal, "Performance optimization of an InP-based widely tunable all-optical wavelength converter operating at 40 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 577-579 (2006).
  22. J. Mork, F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, "Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1479-1481 (2003).
  23. J. Leuthold, "All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622-633 (1998).
  24. O. Zouraraki, "Optical packet buffering in all-optical time-slot-interchanger architecture," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett submitted for publication.

2006

R. V. Caenegem, "From IP over WDM to all-optical packet switching: Economical view," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1638-1645 (2006).

E. F. Burmeister, J. E. Bowers, "Integrated gate matrix switch for optical packet buffering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 103-105 (2006).

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

N. Chi, S. Yu, "Optical subcarrier labeling transparent to the payload format using carrier suppression technique ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 971-973 (2006).

E. Kehayas, "ARTEMIS: 40-Gb/s all-optical self-routing node and network architecture employing asynchronous bit and packet-level optical signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2967-2977 (2006).

V. Lal, "Performance optimization of an InP-based widely tunable all-optical wavelength converter operating at 40 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 577-579 (2006).

2003

J. Mork, F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, "Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1479-1481 (2003).

2002

T. T. Lee, S. Y. Liew, "Parallel routing algorithms in Benes–Clos networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

2001

M. C. Chia, "Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1241-1254 (2001).

1999

J. Leuthold, "All-optical Mach–Zehnder interferometer wavelength converters and switches with integrated data- and control-signal separation scheme," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1056-1066 (1999).

1998

J. Leuthold, "All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622-633 (1998).

D. K. Hunter, W. D. Cornwell, T. H. Gilfedder, A. Franzen, I. Andonovic, "SLOB: A switch with large optical buffers for packet switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1725-1736 (1998).

E. A. Varvarigos, "The ‘packing’ and the ‘scheduling’ packet switch architectures for almost all-optical lossless networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1757-1767 (1998).

D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2081-2094 (1998).

C. Guillemot, "Transparent optical packet switching: The European ACTS KEOPS project approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2117-2134 (1998).

1996

R. L. Cruz, J.-T. Tsai, "COD: Alternative architectures for high-speed packet switching," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4, 11-21 (1996).

I. Chlamtac, "CORD: Contention resolution by delay lines," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1014-1029 (1996).

1993

D. K. Hunter, D. G. Smith, "New architectures for optical TDM switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 495-511 (1993).

K. Tajima, "All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746-L1749 (1993).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Leuthold, "All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622-633 (1998).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

I. Chlamtac, "CORD: Contention resolution by delay lines," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1014-1029 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett

O. Zouraraki, "Optical packet buffering in all-optical time-slot-interchanger architecture," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett submitted for publication.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

V. Lal, "Performance optimization of an InP-based widely tunable all-optical wavelength converter operating at 40 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 577-579 (2006).

J. Mork, F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, "Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1479-1481 (2003).

E. F. Burmeister, J. E. Bowers, "Integrated gate matrix switch for optical packet buffering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 103-105 (2006).

N. Chi, S. Yu, "Optical subcarrier labeling transparent to the payload format using carrier suppression technique ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 971-973 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

T. T. Lee, S. Y. Liew, "Parallel routing algorithms in Benes–Clos networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

R. L. Cruz, J.-T. Tsai, "COD: Alternative architectures for high-speed packet switching," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4, 11-21 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol.

C. Guillemot, "Transparent optical packet switching: The European ACTS KEOPS project approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2117-2134 (1998).

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

M. C. Chia, "Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1241-1254 (2001).

E. Kehayas, "ARTEMIS: 40-Gb/s all-optical self-routing node and network architecture employing asynchronous bit and packet-level optical signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2967-2977 (2006).

D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2081-2094 (1998).

R. V. Caenegem, "From IP over WDM to all-optical packet switching: Economical view," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1638-1645 (2006).

D. K. Hunter, W. D. Cornwell, T. H. Gilfedder, A. Franzen, I. Andonovic, "SLOB: A switch with large optical buffers for packet switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1725-1736 (1998).

E. A. Varvarigos, "The ‘packing’ and the ‘scheduling’ packet switch architectures for almost all-optical lossless networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1757-1767 (1998).

D. K. Hunter, D. G. Smith, "New architectures for optical TDM switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 495-511 (1993).

J. Leuthold, "All-optical Mach–Zehnder interferometer wavelength converters and switches with integrated data- and control-signal separation scheme," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1056-1066 (1999).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Tajima, "All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746-L1749 (1993).

Other

Active Photonics User's Manual VPI ComponentMaker Ch. 5: Overview of the TLLM.

C. M. Gauger, "Dimensioning of FDL buffers for optical burst switching nodes," Proc. 6th IFIP Work. Conf. ONDM (2002) pp. 117-132.

M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, T. Roughgarden, "Routers with very small buffers," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2006) pp. 1-11.

S. Bjørnstad, N. Stol, D. R. Hjelme, "An optical packet switch design with shared electronic buffering and low bit rate add/drop inputs ," Proc. Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw. (2002) pp. 69-72.

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