Abstract

We propose a simplified configuration of all-optical analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion using nonlinear optical loop mirrors (NOLMs). While the conventional scheme of such all-optical A/D conversion requires <i>N</i> encoders and <i>N</i> thresholders, for <i>N</i>-bit resolution, the proposed configuration realizes an <i>N</i>-bit resolution only using a single encoder and thresholder, based on a split-and-delay technique, in which the encoder and the thresholder operate more than <i>N</i> times as fast as the sampling speed. After discussing detailed design issues of the NOLM-based encoder with particular emphasis on the so-called counterpropagating effects, all-optical 3-bit A/D conversion at 10 GS/s is experimentally demonstrated using the proposed configuration.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. H. F. Taylor, "An optical analog-to-digital converter—Design and analysis," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 210-216 (1979).
  2. J.-M. Jong, M. E. Marhic, "All-optical analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion implemented by a nonlinear fiber interferometer," Opt. Commun. 91, 115-122 (1992).
  3. W. Cheng, W. Ali, M.-J. Choi, K. Liu, T. Tat, D. Devendorf, L. Linder, R. Stevens, "A 3b 40 GS/s ADC-DAC in 0.12 $\mu\hbox{m}$ SiGe ," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2004) pp. 262-263.
  4. K. Poulton, "A 20 GS/s 8 b ADC with a 1 MB memory in 0.18 $\mu\hbox{m}$ CMOS," IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers (2003) pp. 318-319.
  5. R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999).
  6. P. J. Delfyett, T. Yilmaz, C. DePriest, A. Braun, J. Abeles, "Timing jitter in modelocked semiconductor diode lasers," Proc. 15th Annu. Meeting IEEE LEOS (2002) pp. 335-336.
  7. K. Azadet, E. F. Haratsch, H. Kim, F. Saibi, J. H. Saunders, M. Shaffer, L. Song, M. Yu, "Equalization and FEC technique for optical transceivers," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 317-327 (2002).
  8. H. F. Haunstein, S. Wolfgang, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht, R. Urbansky, "Principles for electronic equalization of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1169-1182 (2004).
  9. T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Colavolpe, G. Prati, "Maximum-likelihood sequence detection with closed-form metrics in OOK optical systems impaired by GVD and PMD," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3073-3087 (2006).
  10. T. Yamamoto, E. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical loop mirror for demultiplexing 640 Gb/s TDM signals," Electron. Lett. 34, 1013-1014 (1998).
  11. T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, M. Saruwatari, "Error-free 500 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses," Electron. Lett. 32, 833-834 (1996).
  12. Y. Han, O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Tera-sample per second real-time waveform digitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241 116 (2005).
  13. T. R. Clark, Jr.M. L. Dennis, "Toward a 100-GSample/s photonic A-D converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 236-238 (2001).
  14. K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, S. Namiki, K. Kitayama, "Optical quantizing and coding for ultrafast A/D conversion using nonlinear fiber-optic switches based on Sagnac interferometer," Opt. Express 13, 4296-4302 (2005).
  15. K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, H. Tobioka, S. Namiki, K. Kitayama, "Design considerations of all-optical A/D conversion: Nonlinear fiber-optic Sagnac loop interferometer-based optical quantizing and coding," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2618-2628 (2006).
  16. K. Ikeda, Y. Miyoshi, H. Tobioka, T. Inoue, S. Namiki, K. Kitayama, "Split-and-delay technique for simplified high-resolution all-optical A/D conversion based upon nonlinear fiber-optic switch," Proc. 31st ECOC (2005) pp. 927-928.
  17. A. Bogoni, M. Scaffardi, P. Ghelfi, L. Poti, "Nonlinear optical loop mirrors: Investigation solution and experimental validation for undesirable counterpropagating effects in all-optical signal processing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1115-1123 (2004).
  18. T. Sakamoto, K. Kikuchi, "Nonlinear optical loop mirror with an optical bias controller for achieving full-swing operation of gate switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 545-547 (2004).
  19. S. Arahira, Y. Ogawa, "160-gb/s OTDM signal source with 3R function utilizing ultrafast mode-locked laser diodes and modified NOLM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 992-994 (2005).

2006

T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Colavolpe, G. Prati, "Maximum-likelihood sequence detection with closed-form metrics in OOK optical systems impaired by GVD and PMD," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3073-3087 (2006).

K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, H. Tobioka, S. Namiki, K. Kitayama, "Design considerations of all-optical A/D conversion: Nonlinear fiber-optic Sagnac loop interferometer-based optical quantizing and coding," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2618-2628 (2006).

2005

S. Arahira, Y. Ogawa, "160-gb/s OTDM signal source with 3R function utilizing ultrafast mode-locked laser diodes and modified NOLM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 992-994 (2005).

K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, S. Namiki, K. Kitayama, "Optical quantizing and coding for ultrafast A/D conversion using nonlinear fiber-optic switches based on Sagnac interferometer," Opt. Express 13, 4296-4302 (2005).

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Tera-sample per second real-time waveform digitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241 116 (2005).

2004

A. Bogoni, M. Scaffardi, P. Ghelfi, L. Poti, "Nonlinear optical loop mirrors: Investigation solution and experimental validation for undesirable counterpropagating effects in all-optical signal processing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1115-1123 (2004).

T. Sakamoto, K. Kikuchi, "Nonlinear optical loop mirror with an optical bias controller for achieving full-swing operation of gate switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 545-547 (2004).

H. F. Haunstein, S. Wolfgang, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht, R. Urbansky, "Principles for electronic equalization of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1169-1182 (2004).

2002

K. Azadet, E. F. Haratsch, H. Kim, F. Saibi, J. H. Saunders, M. Shaffer, L. Song, M. Yu, "Equalization and FEC technique for optical transceivers," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 317-327 (2002).

2001

T. R. Clark, Jr.M. L. Dennis, "Toward a 100-GSample/s photonic A-D converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 236-238 (2001).

1999

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999).

1998

T. Yamamoto, E. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical loop mirror for demultiplexing 640 Gb/s TDM signals," Electron. Lett. 34, 1013-1014 (1998).

1996

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, M. Saruwatari, "Error-free 500 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses," Electron. Lett. 32, 833-834 (1996).

1992

J.-M. Jong, M. E. Marhic, "All-optical analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion implemented by a nonlinear fiber interferometer," Opt. Commun. 91, 115-122 (1992).

1979

H. F. Taylor, "An optical analog-to-digital converter—Design and analysis," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 210-216 (1979).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Tera-sample per second real-time waveform digitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241 116 (2005).

Electron. Lett.

T. Yamamoto, E. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical loop mirror for demultiplexing 640 Gb/s TDM signals," Electron. Lett. 34, 1013-1014 (1998).

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, M. Saruwatari, "Error-free 500 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses," Electron. Lett. 32, 833-834 (1996).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Bogoni, M. Scaffardi, P. Ghelfi, L. Poti, "Nonlinear optical loop mirrors: Investigation solution and experimental validation for undesirable counterpropagating effects in all-optical signal processing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1115-1123 (2004).

H. F. Taylor, "An optical analog-to-digital converter—Design and analysis," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 210-216 (1979).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

K. Azadet, E. F. Haratsch, H. Kim, F. Saibi, J. H. Saunders, M. Shaffer, L. Song, M. Yu, "Equalization and FEC technique for optical transceivers," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 317-327 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Sakamoto, K. Kikuchi, "Nonlinear optical loop mirror with an optical bias controller for achieving full-swing operation of gate switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 545-547 (2004).

S. Arahira, Y. Ogawa, "160-gb/s OTDM signal source with 3R function utilizing ultrafast mode-locked laser diodes and modified NOLM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 992-994 (2005).

T. R. Clark, Jr.M. L. Dennis, "Toward a 100-GSample/s photonic A-D converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 236-238 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol.

K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, H. Tobioka, S. Namiki, K. Kitayama, "Design considerations of all-optical A/D conversion: Nonlinear fiber-optic Sagnac loop interferometer-based optical quantizing and coding," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2618-2628 (2006).

H. F. Haunstein, S. Wolfgang, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht, R. Urbansky, "Principles for electronic equalization of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1169-1182 (2004).

T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Colavolpe, G. Prati, "Maximum-likelihood sequence detection with closed-form metrics in OOK optical systems impaired by GVD and PMD," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3073-3087 (2006).

Opt. Commun.

J.-M. Jong, M. E. Marhic, "All-optical analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion implemented by a nonlinear fiber interferometer," Opt. Commun. 91, 115-122 (1992).

Opt. Express

Other

K. Ikeda, Y. Miyoshi, H. Tobioka, T. Inoue, S. Namiki, K. Kitayama, "Split-and-delay technique for simplified high-resolution all-optical A/D conversion based upon nonlinear fiber-optic switch," Proc. 31st ECOC (2005) pp. 927-928.

W. Cheng, W. Ali, M.-J. Choi, K. Liu, T. Tat, D. Devendorf, L. Linder, R. Stevens, "A 3b 40 GS/s ADC-DAC in 0.12 $\mu\hbox{m}$ SiGe ," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2004) pp. 262-263.

K. Poulton, "A 20 GS/s 8 b ADC with a 1 MB memory in 0.18 $\mu\hbox{m}$ CMOS," IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers (2003) pp. 318-319.

P. J. Delfyett, T. Yilmaz, C. DePriest, A. Braun, J. Abeles, "Timing jitter in modelocked semiconductor diode lasers," Proc. 15th Annu. Meeting IEEE LEOS (2002) pp. 335-336.

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