Abstract

Sensing properties of long-period gratings (LPGs) fabricated in photonic crystal fibers by an electric arc are explained and quantified by semianalytical and numerical models. In particular, the grating's insensitivity to temperature and simultaneous sensitivity to strain and refractive index are simulated. The modeling procedure is generalized so that it can be applied to a wide range of LPGs in various fibers.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).
  2. S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 49 (2003).
  3. G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain based on arc-induced long-period fibre gratings ," Electron. Lett. 41, 60-62 (2005).
  4. C. C. Ye, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Simultaneous temperature and bend sensing with long-period fibre gratings," Opt. Lett. 25, 1007-1009 (2000).
  5. V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, D. Sherr, T. G. D'Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. TenEyck, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, "Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period grating sensors for smart structures ," Opt. Eng. 36, 1872-1876 (1997).
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  7. B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
  8. J. N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S. W. Kim, M. S. Kim, "Temperature insensitive long period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 2134-2136 (1999).
  9. P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibres," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
  10. H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).
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2006 (2)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre ," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).

J. S. Petrovic, D. J. Webb, H. Dobb, V. K. Mezentsev, K. Kalli, I. Bennion, "Nondestructive index profiling of long period gratings in photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron 38, 913-920 (2006).

2005 (2)

G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain based on arc-induced long-period fibre gratings ," Electron. Lett. 41, 60-62 (2005).

G. Rego, J. C. C. Carvalho, P. V. S. Marques, A. F. Fernandez, F. Durr, H. G. Limberger, "Stress profiling of arc-induced long-period gratings written in pure-silica-core-fibres ," Proc. SPIE 5855, II884-887 (2005).

2004 (2)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica fibre by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).

2003 (4)

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres ," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 49 (2003).

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibres," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fibre," Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 210 (2003).

2002 (2)

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristic of long period fibre gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).

2000 (2)

L. Qin, Z. X. Wei, Q. Y. Wang, H. P. Li, W. Zheng, D. S. Gao, "Compact temperature-compensation package for long-period fibre gratings," Opt. Mater. 14, 239-242 (2000).

C. C. Ye, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Simultaneous temperature and bend sensing with long-period fibre gratings," Opt. Lett. 25, 1007-1009 (2000).

1999 (3)

V. Bhatia, "Application of long period gratings to single- and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express 4, 457 (1999).

R. P. Espindola, R. S. Abramov, A. A. Eggleton, T. A. Strasser, D. J. DiGiovanni, "External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fibre grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 327-328 (1999).

J. N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S. W. Kim, M. S. Kim, "Temperature insensitive long period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 2134-2136 (1999).

1998 (2)

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Buchlotz, "Analysis of the response of long period fibre gratings to external index of refraction ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

T. W. MacDougall, S. Pilevar, C. W. Haggans, M. A. Jackson, "Generalized expression for the growth of long period gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1449-1451 (1998).

1997 (2)

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).

V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, D. Sherr, T. G. D'Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. TenEyck, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, "Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period grating sensors for smart structures ," Opt. Eng. 36, 1872-1876 (1997).

1979 (1)

1975 (1)

P. R. McIsaac, "Symmetry induced modal characteristics of uniform waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-23, 421-429 (1975).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (6)

R. P. Espindola, R. S. Abramov, A. A. Eggleton, T. A. Strasser, D. J. DiGiovanni, "External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fibre grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 327-328 (1999).

G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain based on arc-induced long-period fibre gratings ," Electron. Lett. 41, 60-62 (2005).

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).

J. N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S. W. Kim, M. S. Kim, "Temperature insensitive long period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 2134-2136 (1999).

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres ," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. W. MacDougall, S. Pilevar, C. W. Haggans, M. A. Jackson, "Generalized expression for the growth of long period gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1449-1451 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

P. R. McIsaac, "Symmetry induced modal characteristics of uniform waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-23, 421-429 (1975).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica fibre by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristic of long period fibre gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Buchlotz, "Analysis of the response of long period fibre gratings to external index of refraction ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 49 (2003).

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre ," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).

Opt. Eng. (1)

V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, D. Sherr, T. G. D'Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. TenEyck, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, "Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period grating sensors for smart structures ," Opt. Eng. 36, 1872-1876 (1997).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fibre," Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 210 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

L. Qin, Z. X. Wei, Q. Y. Wang, H. P. Li, W. Zheng, D. S. Gao, "Compact temperature-compensation package for long-period fibre gratings," Opt. Mater. 14, 239-242 (2000).

Opt. Quantum Electron (1)

J. S. Petrovic, D. J. Webb, H. Dobb, V. K. Mezentsev, K. Kalli, I. Bennion, "Nondestructive index profiling of long period gratings in photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron 38, 913-920 (2006).

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Rego, J. C. C. Carvalho, P. V. S. Marques, A. F. Fernandez, F. Durr, H. G. Limberger, "Stress profiling of arc-induced long-period gratings written in pure-silica-core-fibres ," Proc. SPIE 5855, II884-887 (2005).

Science (1)

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibres," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

Other (4)

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fibre Bragg Gratings (Artech House, 1999) pp. 192.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

COMSOL Inc. www.comsol.com.

R. Gunter, Modern Optics (Wiley, 1990).

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