Abstract

Two different silicon slot waveguide configurations are thoroughly analyzed to achieve the optimum nonlinear performance. In the slot region, a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor-compatible material made by silicon nanocrystals embedded in silica SiO<sub>2</sub> has been considered. This material has demonstrated very promising characteristics for nonlinear applications. The optimum parameters for each configuration are first designed to achieve maximum field confinement in the slot region. Minimum effective areas around 0.1 µm<sup>2</sup> are obtained for both configurations. The influence on the field confinement of the variation of the refractive index in the slot region and the variation of the sidewall angle is investigated. In the former, it is shown that the variation of the refractive index in the slot region has a small effect on both slot waveguide configurations. However, the influence of the sidewall angle on the field confinement depends on the configuration chosen.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "Guided modes of nonlinear slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1530-1532 (2006).

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "Theoretical investigation of ultrasmall polarization-insensitive 1 x 2 multimode interference waveguides based on sandwiched structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1246-1248 (2006).

P. Müller, R. Hainberger, "Structural optimization of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2557-2559 (2006).

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear slot-waveguide couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 23, 684-691 (2006).

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "Polarization-independent optical directional coupler based on slot waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 56-68 (2006).

P. Andrew, B. Schmidt, M. Lipson, "High confinement in silicon slot waveguides with sharp bends," Opt. Express 14, 9197-9202 (2006).

2005

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005).

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon—challenges and opportunities ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4238 (2005).

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081 101 (2005).

C. A. Barrios, M. Lipson, "Electrically driven silicon resonant light emitting device based on slot-waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 10 092-10 101 (2005).

B. Gallas, I. Stenger, C. Kao, S. Fisson, G. Vuye, J. Rivory, "Optical properties of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 72, 155 319 (2005).

J. A. Moreno, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, P. Marie, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, "Size dependence of refractive index of Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013 523 (2005).

2004

2002

H. A. Jamid, "Multilayer ARROW channel waveguide for evanescent field enhancement in low-index media ," Appl. Opt. 41, 1385-1390 (2002).

G. V. Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).

2001

2000

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, "Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).

1995

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevino, G. I. Stegeman, "Waveguide design for minimum nonlinear effective area and switching energy in AlGaAs at half the bandgap," Electron. Lett. 31, 549-551 (1995).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081 101 (2005).

Electron. Lett.

C. A. Barrios, "High-performance all-optical silicon microswitch," Electron. Lett. 40, 862-863 (2004).

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevino, G. I. Stegeman, "Waveguide design for minimum nonlinear effective area and switching energy in AlGaAs at half the bandgap," Electron. Lett. 31, 549-551 (1995).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, "Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "Guided modes of nonlinear slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1530-1532 (2006).

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "Theoretical investigation of ultrasmall polarization-insensitive 1 x 2 multimode interference waveguides based on sandwiched structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1246-1248 (2006).

P. Müller, R. Hainberger, "Structural optimization of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2557-2559 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys.

G. V. Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).

J. A. Moreno, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, P. Marie, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, "Size dependence of refractive index of Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013 523 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol.

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon—challenges and opportunities ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4238 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys.

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear slot-waveguide couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 23, 684-691 (2006).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter

B. Gallas, I. Stenger, C. Kao, S. Fisson, G. Vuye, J. Rivory, "Optical properties of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 72, 155 319 (2005).

Other

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, "Integrated optical spectroscopy of low-index gases and liquids using ARROW waveguides ," Tech. Dig., Integr. Photon. Res. Conf. (2003).

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