Abstract

Fabrication and optical characterization of single-mode polymeric embedded waveguides are performed. A specific material combination (SU-8 2005 as core and the modified SU-8 mr-L 6050XP as cladding) is chosen in order to obtain a small refractive index difference for single-mode propagation combined with the conventional fabrication method UV lithography to facilitate the integration of different types of optical detection methods on lab-on-a-chip systems. We analyze the behavior of the refractive index and carefully observe how the value of the refractive index can be tailored during processing. We show that we can fabricate waveguides with an index difference in the order of 10<sup>-3</sup>, where both the core material and the cladding material are based on SU-8. The refractive index measurements are performed on thin polymeric films, while further optical characterizations are performed on waveguides with a height of 4.5 µm. We study the mode profiles of these waveguides and confirm that only the fundamental mode is excited. We also study the absorption spectra of the material in the wavelength range 800–1600 nm combined with cut-back measurements. We find that the waveguides have a propagation loss of 0.2–3 dB/cm in this wavelength range.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. R. A. Yotter, L. A. Lee, D. M. Wilson, "Sensor technologies for monitoring metabolic activity in single cells—Part II: Nonoptical methods and applications," IEEE Sens. J. 4, 395-411 (2004).
  2. R. Marie, S. Schmidt, A. Johansson, L. Ejsing, M. Nordström, D. Häfliger, C. B. Christensen, A. Boisen, M. Dufva, "Immobilisation of DNA to polymerised SU-8 photoresist," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1327-1332 (2006).
  3. B.-H. V. Borges, L. E. M. de Barros, Jr."Design of optical biosensor using polymeric waveguides," Proc. IEEE Int. Microw. Optoelectronics Conf. (1999) pp. 66-69.
  4. X. Lu, C.-H. Jang, D. An, Q. Zhou, L. Sun, X. Zhang, R. T. Chen, D. Dawson, "Polymeric multimode waveguide based electro-optic modulator with a vertically configured dumping planar waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 795-797 (2002).
  5. K. B. Mogensen, J. El-Ali, A. Wolff, J. P. Kütter, "Integration of polymer waveguides for optical detection in microfabricated chemical analysis systems," Appl. Opt. 42, 4072-4079 (2003).
  6. J. M. Ruano, M. Aguirregabiria, M. Tijero, M. Arroyo, J. Garcia, J. Berganzo, I. Arambur, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, "Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides using a photodefinable epoxy," Proc. MEMS (2004) pp. 121-124.
  7. M. Nathan, O. Levy, I. Goldfarb, A. Ruzin, "Monolithic coupling of a SU-8 waveguide to a Silicon photodiode," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7932-7934 (2003).
  8. B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gavio, J. Zyss, F. Poncin-Epaillard, "Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics," Opt. Commun. 246, 25-28 (2005).
  9. B. Bêche, N. Pelletier, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, "Single-mode TE00 - TM00 optical waveguides on SU-8 polymer," Opt. Commun. 230, 91-94 (2004).
  10. K. K. Tung, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, "Polymeric optical waveguides using direct ultraviolet photolithography process," Appl. Phys. A, Solid Surf. 80, 621-626 (2005).
  11. B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang, Y. H. Tsai, "UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 383-389 (2005).
  12. D. A. Chang-Yen, B. K. Gale, "An integrated optical oxygen sensor fabricated using rapid-prototyping techniques," Lab Chip 3, 297-301 (2003).
  13. J. Hsieh, C.-J. Weng, H.-L. Yin, H.-H. Lin, H.-Y. Chou, "Realization and characterization of SU-8 micro cylindrical lenses for in-plane micro optical systems," Microsyst. Technol. 11, 429-437 (2005).
  14. C.-J. Lin, F.-G. Tseng, "Micro Fabry-Pérot sensor for nano-lateral displacement sensing with enhanced sensitivity and pressure resistance," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 163-170 (2004).
  15. F. J. Blanco, M. Agirregabiria, J. Berganzo, K. Mayora, J. Elizalde, A. Calle, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, "Microfluidic-optical integrated CMOS compatible devices for label-free biochemical sensing ," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1006-1016 (2006).
  16. D. Nilsson, T. Nielsen, A. Kristensen, "Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4481-4486 (2004).
  17. J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, C. Blachetière, S. Jacob, J. P. Noad, J. Ding, Y. Qi, M. Day, "Optimizing fluorinated poly(arylene ether)s for optical waveguide applications," Opt. Mater. 28, 189-194 (2006).
  18. J. M. Shaw, D. D. Gelorme, N. C. LaBianca, W. E. Conlye, S. J. Holmes, "Negative photoresists for optical lithography," IBM J. Res. Develop. 41, 81-94 (1997).
  19. G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 82, 172-175 (1909).
  20. S.-K. Kim, K. Geary, W. Yuan, H. R. Fetterman, D.-G. Lee, C. Zhang, C. Wang, W. H. Steier, G.-C. Park, S.-J. Gang, I. Oh, "Stress-induced polymer waveguides operating at both 1.31 and 1.55 µm wavelengths," Electron. Lett. 40, 866-868 (2004).
  21. S. Agan, F. Ay, A. Kocabas, A. Aydinli, "Stress effects in prism coupling measurements of thin polymer films," Appl. Phys. A, Solid Surf. 80, 341-345 (2005).

2006 (3)

R. Marie, S. Schmidt, A. Johansson, L. Ejsing, M. Nordström, D. Häfliger, C. B. Christensen, A. Boisen, M. Dufva, "Immobilisation of DNA to polymerised SU-8 photoresist," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1327-1332 (2006).

F. J. Blanco, M. Agirregabiria, J. Berganzo, K. Mayora, J. Elizalde, A. Calle, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, "Microfluidic-optical integrated CMOS compatible devices for label-free biochemical sensing ," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1006-1016 (2006).

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, C. Blachetière, S. Jacob, J. P. Noad, J. Ding, Y. Qi, M. Day, "Optimizing fluorinated poly(arylene ether)s for optical waveguide applications," Opt. Mater. 28, 189-194 (2006).

2005 (5)

J. Hsieh, C.-J. Weng, H.-L. Yin, H.-H. Lin, H.-Y. Chou, "Realization and characterization of SU-8 micro cylindrical lenses for in-plane micro optical systems," Microsyst. Technol. 11, 429-437 (2005).

B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gavio, J. Zyss, F. Poncin-Epaillard, "Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics," Opt. Commun. 246, 25-28 (2005).

K. K. Tung, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, "Polymeric optical waveguides using direct ultraviolet photolithography process," Appl. Phys. A, Solid Surf. 80, 621-626 (2005).

B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang, Y. H. Tsai, "UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 383-389 (2005).

S. Agan, F. Ay, A. Kocabas, A. Aydinli, "Stress effects in prism coupling measurements of thin polymer films," Appl. Phys. A, Solid Surf. 80, 341-345 (2005).

2004 (5)

B. Bêche, N. Pelletier, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, "Single-mode TE00 - TM00 optical waveguides on SU-8 polymer," Opt. Commun. 230, 91-94 (2004).

C.-J. Lin, F.-G. Tseng, "Micro Fabry-Pérot sensor for nano-lateral displacement sensing with enhanced sensitivity and pressure resistance," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 163-170 (2004).

D. Nilsson, T. Nielsen, A. Kristensen, "Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4481-4486 (2004).

R. A. Yotter, L. A. Lee, D. M. Wilson, "Sensor technologies for monitoring metabolic activity in single cells—Part II: Nonoptical methods and applications," IEEE Sens. J. 4, 395-411 (2004).

S.-K. Kim, K. Geary, W. Yuan, H. R. Fetterman, D.-G. Lee, C. Zhang, C. Wang, W. H. Steier, G.-C. Park, S.-J. Gang, I. Oh, "Stress-induced polymer waveguides operating at both 1.31 and 1.55 µm wavelengths," Electron. Lett. 40, 866-868 (2004).

2003 (3)

D. A. Chang-Yen, B. K. Gale, "An integrated optical oxygen sensor fabricated using rapid-prototyping techniques," Lab Chip 3, 297-301 (2003).

K. B. Mogensen, J. El-Ali, A. Wolff, J. P. Kütter, "Integration of polymer waveguides for optical detection in microfabricated chemical analysis systems," Appl. Opt. 42, 4072-4079 (2003).

M. Nathan, O. Levy, I. Goldfarb, A. Ruzin, "Monolithic coupling of a SU-8 waveguide to a Silicon photodiode," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7932-7934 (2003).

2002 (1)

X. Lu, C.-H. Jang, D. An, Q. Zhou, L. Sun, X. Zhang, R. T. Chen, D. Dawson, "Polymeric multimode waveguide based electro-optic modulator with a vertically configured dumping planar waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 795-797 (2002).

1997 (1)

J. M. Shaw, D. D. Gelorme, N. C. LaBianca, W. E. Conlye, S. J. Holmes, "Negative photoresists for optical lithography," IBM J. Res. Develop. 41, 81-94 (1997).

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 82, 172-175 (1909).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A, Solid Surf. (2)

K. K. Tung, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, "Polymeric optical waveguides using direct ultraviolet photolithography process," Appl. Phys. A, Solid Surf. 80, 621-626 (2005).

S. Agan, F. Ay, A. Kocabas, A. Aydinli, "Stress effects in prism coupling measurements of thin polymer films," Appl. Phys. A, Solid Surf. 80, 341-345 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Lu, C.-H. Jang, D. An, Q. Zhou, L. Sun, X. Zhang, R. T. Chen, D. Dawson, "Polymeric multimode waveguide based electro-optic modulator with a vertically configured dumping planar waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 795-797 (2002).

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

R. Marie, S. Schmidt, A. Johansson, L. Ejsing, M. Nordström, D. Häfliger, C. B. Christensen, A. Boisen, M. Dufva, "Immobilisation of DNA to polymerised SU-8 photoresist," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1327-1332 (2006).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S.-K. Kim, K. Geary, W. Yuan, H. R. Fetterman, D.-G. Lee, C. Zhang, C. Wang, W. H. Steier, G.-C. Park, S.-J. Gang, I. Oh, "Stress-induced polymer waveguides operating at both 1.31 and 1.55 µm wavelengths," Electron. Lett. 40, 866-868 (2004).

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

J. M. Shaw, D. D. Gelorme, N. C. LaBianca, W. E. Conlye, S. J. Holmes, "Negative photoresists for optical lithography," IBM J. Res. Develop. 41, 81-94 (1997).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

R. A. Yotter, L. A. Lee, D. M. Wilson, "Sensor technologies for monitoring metabolic activity in single cells—Part II: Nonoptical methods and applications," IEEE Sens. J. 4, 395-411 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Nathan, O. Levy, I. Goldfarb, A. Ruzin, "Monolithic coupling of a SU-8 waveguide to a Silicon photodiode," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7932-7934 (2003).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

F. J. Blanco, M. Agirregabiria, J. Berganzo, K. Mayora, J. Elizalde, A. Calle, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, "Microfluidic-optical integrated CMOS compatible devices for label-free biochemical sensing ," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1006-1016 (2006).

Lab Chip (1)

D. A. Chang-Yen, B. K. Gale, "An integrated optical oxygen sensor fabricated using rapid-prototyping techniques," Lab Chip 3, 297-301 (2003).

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

J. Hsieh, C.-J. Weng, H.-L. Yin, H.-H. Lin, H.-Y. Chou, "Realization and characterization of SU-8 micro cylindrical lenses for in-plane micro optical systems," Microsyst. Technol. 11, 429-437 (2005).

Opt. Commun. (2)

B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gavio, J. Zyss, F. Poncin-Epaillard, "Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics," Opt. Commun. 246, 25-28 (2005).

B. Bêche, N. Pelletier, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, "Single-mode TE00 - TM00 optical waveguides on SU-8 polymer," Opt. Commun. 230, 91-94 (2004).

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, C. Blachetière, S. Jacob, J. P. Noad, J. Ding, Y. Qi, M. Day, "Optimizing fluorinated poly(arylene ether)s for optical waveguide applications," Opt. Mater. 28, 189-194 (2006).

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (1)

G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 82, 172-175 (1909).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. Nilsson, T. Nielsen, A. Kristensen, "Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4481-4486 (2004).

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (2)

C.-J. Lin, F.-G. Tseng, "Micro Fabry-Pérot sensor for nano-lateral displacement sensing with enhanced sensitivity and pressure resistance," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 163-170 (2004).

B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang, Y. H. Tsai, "UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 383-389 (2005).

Other (2)

J. M. Ruano, M. Aguirregabiria, M. Tijero, M. Arroyo, J. Garcia, J. Berganzo, I. Arambur, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, "Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides using a photodefinable epoxy," Proc. MEMS (2004) pp. 121-124.

B.-H. V. Borges, L. E. M. de Barros, Jr."Design of optical biosensor using polymeric waveguides," Proc. IEEE Int. Microw. Optoelectronics Conf. (1999) pp. 66-69.

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